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英文应用写作

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翻译价格 《应用写作》,始创于1985年,是目前中国惟一的专门研究探讨应用写作理论和技法、传播现代应用文写作知识、面向国内外公开发行的综合性月刊,系全国应用写作学科核心期刊,以其“关注学科前沿、重视实际应用,兼顾理论指导性与实践操作性”的刊物风格深受全国广大文秘工作者、应用写作研究者和写作教师的喜爱与好评。随着中国的入世,中外交流日益频繁,英文应用写作业崭露头角
英文应用写作

    内 容 1、你想说的最重要的事是什么?如果已经说出来了,在草稿中找出这段话,并在句子下面划线。如果还没有说出来,现在就写。 2、文章里所写的每件事都同主旨相关吗?哪个部分你不需要?如果你写的是当你在银行实习时,意识到自己宁愿成为一名核物理学家,那么坐公交上班这段话就显得十分没有必要了。 3、你做到具体化了吗?如果发现自己只是泛泛而谈,那么就把一般变为具体。 4、你有没有思考并回答读者最想问的问题? 5、你的文章是否像你的人?有没有在陈述自己时过于正式?...

    (一)掌握技巧: (1)注意篇章结构,合理布局 开始部分(opening paragraph)——说出文中的要点、核心问题。 正文部分(Body paragraphs)——围绕主题开展叙述、讨论。 结尾部分(concluding paragraphs)——对全文的总结和概括。 要做到全文中心突出、段落之间必须是有机地联系,内容完整、连贯。前后呼应,祛除与主题无关的内容.详细可以参情况考ESL资源网站 里面的writing部分。 (2)确定主题句 主题句是对全文的概括,是文章的主旨。它能在文章中起到“画龙点睛”的作用。通常主题句出现在一...

    第二十一单元 从段落到篇章 21.1 段落和篇章 段落和篇章在长度上有明显的不同,但是它们在结构上是一致的。首先,段落是由表达其主题思想的主题句(Topic Sentence)或主题导句(Topic Introducer)引出的,而篇章中的首段也是该篇文章主题思想的导言和引言;其次,一个段落必须有若干个展开句使主题思想得以展开和充实,同样篇章的主体部分也是由几个推展或后续首段主题思想的段落组成。再者,在段落结束时有一个结尾句(Concluding Sentence)总结段落的主旨,篇章也同样有一个对上下文进行归纳...

    第二十二单元 篇章的统一性、支撑性、连贯性和一致性 22.1 篇章的统一性(Unity of an Essay) 篇章的统一性是指各推展段落都必须紧扣主题思想,不包含与主题思想无关的任何部分。如果包含与主题思想无关的部分或出现多层意思,就会导致主旨不清,思路混乱。 22.2 篇章的支撑性(Support of an Essay) 只有通过具体的实例、事实、细节或事件对篇章中的主题思想加以充实和发挥,才能使文章的主题更加明确具体。例如:在Unit 21-2范文中的四个Supporting Paragraphs(SP1,SP2,SP3,SP4)都是通过具体的实例、...

    第十八单元 推展段落方法之九——因果法(Ⅱ) 18.1原因法 有时,一个结果会源于几个原因。同样,段落可或以结果开头或以结果结束,作者可以从熟悉到不熟悉的原因逐一分析,或是从分析一个又一个读者不熟悉的原因开头,最后引出读者熟悉的结果。选用哪一种,决定于作者认为哪一种更有说服力。 示范段落18-1 Several changes have brought wild animals to the cities.Foremost is,that air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control efforts.Meanwhile,rural areas have been built up,leaving many ani...

    第十九单元 组织段落方法——重要性和熟悉度顺序 19.1 重要性顺序排列法 前面我们已经讨论了组织段落的两种方法——时间顺序法(time-order)和空间顺序法(space-order)。组织段落的第三种方法是根据重要性排列的方法(to organize details according to their order of importance)。作者使用这种方法的依据是他认为所选用的细节应如何加以强调。 使用重要性顺序法,可选用上升顺序(ascending order),或下降顺序(aescending oraer)。前者先列举次要观点,把重要的留到最末(如示范段落17-1),后者先强调最重要...

    第二十单元 推展段落方法——混合方法 20.1 混合方法(Mixed Patterns) 到目前为止,我们讨论了九种推展段落方法——1)事实数据法(facts and statistics);2)叙述法(narration);3)描述法(description);4)过程分析法(process analysis);5)定义法(definition);6)举例法(examples);7)比较对比法(comparison and contrast);8)分类法(division and classification);9)因果法(cause and effect)。我们还讨论了四种组织段落的方法:1)时间顺序法(time order);2)空间顺序法(space order);3)重要性顺序法(...

    第十六单元 推展段落方法之八——分类法 16.1分类法 分类法(division and classification)是把一事物拆成几部分,表明这些部分与整体的关系。通常,作者以总类开头,然后把总类拆开,——列举部分或全部分类。 示范段落16-1 There are three basic kinds of materials that can be found in any good library.First,there are books on all subjects,both in English and in many other languages.These books are organized according to subject,title,and author in a central filing system called card catalog.Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of tw...

    第十七单元 推展段落方法之九——因果法(Ⅰ) 17.1因果法 因果法(cause and effect)段落通常回答“why?”的问题。大多数人认为在自己或别人生活中发生的事情必然事出有因,因此总要知道为什么会发生这样或那样的事情。原因(cause)指的是导致结果的发生在过去的事情,结果(effect)指的是已发生的事情将会产生的后果。 17.2结果法 解释一个原因(cause)的几个结果(effects)的段落,可能以下面两种顺序之一出现:或者以原因开头,接着指出一个一个结果,如下面示范段落17-1所示;或首先摆...

    第十五单元 推展段落方法之七——下定义法 15.1下定义法 下定义(definition)就是解释某事物是什么,不是什么。写下定义段落时,通常把概念或要下定义的事物置于一个大的类别中,然后解释该事物与同一类别的其它事物有何不同。下定义法多用作推展段落的辅助方法。 示范段落15-1 A pencil is an instrument for writing on paper.It is of cylindrical shape and can be held between the first two fingers of the hand.It is about 6 inches long and 1/4 inch wide.At the end there is usually an eraser attached to the pencil by a surrounding metal band.Lead is the ma...

    第十一单元 推展段落方法之四 ——过程分析法 11.1过程分析法 过程分析法(process analysis)用作支配方法时,其目的是告诉读者怎样做某事,说明某事物的工作原理或某事物的制造方法。 示范段落11-1 Even if you don't know how to cook,you'll never starve to death if you know how to prepare scrambled eggs.You begin by melting one tablespoon of butter in a frying pan over low heat.While the butter is melting,break three eggs into a bowl.Add 1/4teaspoon of salt,1/4 teaspoon of paprika,and three tablespoons of milk to the eggs in the bowl and mix them for about a minute.Pour the...

    第十二单元 组织段落方法——时间顺序法和空间顺序法 组织段落的常见方法有:1)时间顺序;2)空间顺序;3)重要性顺序和;4)熟悉度顺序。在前几单元,我们曾提到写叙述段落和过程分析时用时间顺序,写描述段落时用空间顺序。在这一单元里,我们将着重讨论这两种组织方法。另两种方法——重要性和熟悉度顺序——将在第19单元讨论。 12.1时间顺序法 段落内组织细节的最简单最常见的方法是时间顺序法(time order organization)。时间顺序通常用于叙述和过程分析——先发生什么,然后怎样,...

    第十三单元 推展段落方法之五——举例法 13.1举例法 举例法(examples)也是推展主题的主要方法。举例法有两种形式,一种是首先陈述自己的观点,然后举出一个或多个例子阐明观点;另一种是先举一个很长的例子,然后转入例子所要阐明的观点。 读下面段落: Courage is the willingness to take a risk when the outcome is uncertain,and when the risk taken may involve harm,loss,or danger to the one taking it.The courageous person fears no one and nothing.He or she is undaunted by danger or peril.He or she will venture boldly into an uncertain situation,hardly gi...

    第十四单元 推展段落方法之六 ——比较与对比法 14.1比较与对比法 有时为了说明某一事物,需要与其他事物联系起来才能阐述清楚,这就是对比或比较(comparison or contrast)。比较方法和对比方法基本一致,不同的是比较强调两事物如何相同,对比强调两事物如何不同。 示范段落14-1 Life in the city is quite different from life in the suburbs.People living in the city are constantly exposed to the hustle and bustle of urban life.But life in the suburbs is generally quiet and casual and generally more low-key than in the city.If city dwellers want to see trees...

    第八单元 推展段落方法之一——事实与数据法 在第四单元,我们曾提到推展段落的方法有多种。从这一单元开始,我们将逐个介绍这些方法。 8.1事实与数据法 事实(a fact)是可以客观证实的事情。例如:“The sunrises in the east.”是个事实。“Oil and water do not mix.”也是个事实。两者都可以通过实验证明是真实的。但是“Eating carrots improves eyesight.”也许是真实也许是不真实的。这不是个事实,是一种看法(opinion)。数据(a statistic)是一个数字事实(a numeral fact),用于给某一主题提供有意义的信息...

    第九单元 推展段落方法之二——叙述法 9.1叙述法 叙述法(narration)回答了“发生了什么”(what happened)这一问题。叙述经常用于讲述一系列事件。这种方法常用作小说(fiction)、传记(biographs)的支配方法,也可用作其他各种文体的辅助方法。例如,轶事(anecdotes)、寓言(fables)等都是用叙述形式阐述某一观点。 示范段落9-1 I was seven years old when I first became aware of the terrible power of guilt.For piling our toys into the toy box,Mother had rewarded my brother and me with five shiny pennies each.If I had ten pennies instead of ju...

    第十单元 推展段落方法之三——描述法 10.1描述法 叙述讲述发生了什么事情,描述(description)则向读者描绘某事物的样子、声音、味道等等。作者可以通过外表、行动或变化用语言描绘一个人,一个物体,一个地方或一个场面。 示范段落10-1 A tsunami is a great wave or series of waves.It extends from the surface to the sea floor and moves the entire vertical section of ocean through which it speeds.The greater the ocean depth,the faster the tsunami travels.Speeds of up to 600 mph have been reached.Toward land it slows down as the bottom of the wave drags on the seabed;...

    第六单元 如何写好一个段落(Ⅰ) 6.1段落的特征 一个好的段落应该具有以下三个特征:1)完整性(completeness); 2)统一性(unity); 3)连贯性(coherence)。 6.2完整性 段落的完整性指的是段落得以充分展开。作者一俟写好主题句,就应该用细节进行推展,细节越充足越好。例如,你认为“Riding motorcycles is dangerous”,你就应该用你所知道的事实证明这一观点是正确的。你可以使用数字(statistics),列举例子(example),进行描绘(descriptions)等等。 示范段落6-1 Ever since the time of the Greeks, drama...

    第七单元 如何写好一个段落(Ⅱ) 7.1连贯性 段落的连贯性指的是段落的句子以清晰、符合逻辑的顺序(clear, logical sequence)连接。连贯性使读者能够找出每个观点之间的联系以及这些观点与主题句的联系。 7.2关于如何取得连贯性的建议 1)使用同一时态 如果随意而毫无理由地改变时态(tenses),那么不管作者连句的技巧多么高超,段落也不可能取得连贯性。在写作时,可以使用现在时( present tense)或过去时(past tense)。选用哪一种取决于作者处理材料的方式。 2)使用某种逻辑顺序 常用的逻...

    第五单元如何写结论句 5.1结论句 第一单元曾提到,段落由三个部分组成,最后一部分就是结论句( the concluding sentence)。结论句通常与主题句一样包含有段落的中心思想,然而所用措辞与主题句不同。 在示范段落 1-1,主题句是: We all know that cigarette smoking is a dangerous habit because it causes health problems. 结论句是: It is clearly identified as one of the chief causes of death in our society. 5.2关于写结论句的建议 1)把握主题句的关键词 例如在关于“cigarette smoking”的示范段落 1-1中,中心思想是“the health problems caused...

    第一单元 段落简介 1.1段落 段落是构成文章的一组句子。段落必须表达完整的意思:或描写事物(describe something),或争论某事(argue about something),或对某事提出疑问(question something),或要求什么(demand something),或给事物下定义(define something),或驳斥某观点(reject something)。 1.2典型段落的构成 一个典型的段落通常由三部分组成:(1)主题句(the topic sentence);(2)说明或支持主题的推展句( supporting sentences);(3)结论句(the concluding sentence)(有些段落没有该部分)。 示范段落1...

    第二单元 主题句简介 2.1主题句 作者的首要任务是让读者知道所写段落要谈的是什么,这就是每段的主题句的作用。因此主题句应该阐明段落的主要思想,所有支持主题句的细节和描述都与这一主要思想有关。 2.2主题句的形式 主题句通常有以下三种形式: 1)肯定句(Affirmative Sentence) Example: The need for wildlife protection is greater now than ever before. 2)反诘句(Rhetorical Sentence) Example: How do you think people will solve the problem of wildlife protection? 3)不完整句(Fragments) Example: And the workingman? 初学者最好使...

    第三单元 如何写好主题句 3.1关于写主题句的建议 1)要写合乎语法的句子 Example 1: Two causes of the American Civil War. 这个句子是个不完整的句子,不合乎语法,因此不能用作主题句。 Example 2: There were two causes that led to the American Civil War. 重写后的句子合乎语法,是个较好的主题句。 2)要使用限写词限定主题 为了正确表达观点,好的主题句经常使用关键词或词组,即限制词(controllers)限制这一观点。 Example 3: Air travel is more convenient than train for at least three reasons. 从上例主题句我们得知作者将要写“...

    第四单元 如何写推展句 4.1段落的推展 在前几单元中,我们谈到写段落的第一个步骤是写主题句。作者要对主题句在某些方面加以限制。第二个步骤将是写推展句。例如你要陈述你选择某院校的理由,第一步,写出主题句: There are two main reasons why I have decided to attend Bingston University next year. 第二步,以数个理由推展你的主题: 示范段落4-1 ① There are two main reasons why I have decided to attend Bingston University next year.② First of all, there is the question of money:Bingstonv's tuition is reasonable and I don‘t even have to pay it al...

    第三十单元 关键词作文Key Words Composition 30.1 Introduction In this kind of composition,a series of key words are given together with the title.It requires students' imagination and association in connecting the words logically without going astray from the main topic. Sample Test Item 指示:在30分钟内以“City and Countryside”为题,写一篇120词左右的短文,必需包括下列关键词及表达方式,要求使用正确、恰当。 Key Words and Expressions: similarities differences environment transportation education entertainment colourful boring public health servic reduce the gap 30.2 Analysis and Advice on How...

    第三十一单元 给出题目作文Title-Given Composition 31.1 Introduction A title-given composition requires students to grasp the ideas expressed in the title,and to create a piece of writing that has unity,support and coherence. Because there is no hints or any extra information in addition to the title.This kind of writing is comparatively difficult.But students may have a lot of freedom in writing. Sample Test Item Directions:Write a composition on the topic“Should Firecrackers Be Banned?”Your composition should be at least 100words.Remember to support the main idea with details and make your conclusion.Cohe...

    第三十二单元 图表作文Writing a Composition According to Tables and Graphs 32.1 Introduction This kind of writing is an information interpretation process.The information may be given in numbers,lines or curves,etc.,usually a few explanations are given.The organization of the writing is essential to a good essay of tables and graphs.Generally,it is as follows: General introduction——Analysis——Conclusion 概要介绍——分析图表——总结概括 That is,in the first paragraph,you have to demonstrate the general situation of what has been reflected in the table or graph;Then,in the second paragraph,you have to a...

    第二十六单元 如何用过程分析法推展篇章 26.1 Process(过程法) Process descripton is similar to the procedures followed in conducting a scientific experiment.It describes definite steps in a logical order. In this unit,you will be asked to write a process essay—one that explains clearly how to do or make something. In almost all the essays we have discussed,the topic sentence has appeared at or near the beginning of the first paragraph.In a well constructed process description,the topic sentence establishes the context of the process developed in succceeding sentences and paragraphs.Notice that in the following model ...

    第二十七单元 如何用因果法推展篇章 27.1 Cause and Effect(因果法) The stating of facts and the giving of reasons to explain why and how the facts came about is the basic procedure in essay development by cause and effect.The technique of cause and effect has great flexibility,for the relationships between causes and effects are not always as clear cut as the two terms seem to suggest.Causes may not all carry the same weight,for example.Several contributing causes may be grounded together to form one important cause.There may be one effect to a cause,or there may be many.Effects may be less important than causes,an...

    第二十八单元 情景作文Situational Composition According to the syllabus and the practice up till now,CET—4composition usually has the following five types:situational composition(情景作文),key words composition(关键词作文),topic sentence composition(主题句作文),title-given composition(给出题目作文) and writing a composition according to tables and graphs(图表作文)。 The examinees are required to follow the directions and develop the composition into three paragraphs to form an essay of no less than 100 words in 30 minutes.The essay should be clear,coherent and grammatically correct.The...

    第二十九单元 主题句作文Topic Sentence Composition 29.1 Introduction This is the most common composition practised in CET-4.Usually the title and the topic sentences of each paragraph are given.You are required to write exactly according to the title.You must use the given topic sentences. Sample Test Item: Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about“Television ”in three paragraphs. You are given the first sentence of each paragraph an dare required to develop the idea in completing the paragraph.Your composition should be about 100words,not including the words given. ...

    第二十五单元 如何用定义与分类法推展篇章 25.1 Definition and Classification(定义与分类) A writer often employs more than one method of development in an essay.In order to make it easier or clearer for the reader,the author may,for instance,decide to classify objects,events or terms by retaining a few classes rather than many specific items.Additionally,he may need to define the lables he uses in classifying the subject,especially if the lables are not widely known or are abstract. 在进行定义或分类写作时需注意:1)在进行诠释(定义)时,一定要具体、确切;2)分类时要周密,标...

    第二十四单元 如何用比较与对照法推展篇章 24.1 Comparison and Contrast(比较与对照) Often we may want to describe several aspects of two subjects that have both similarities and differences.When we compare two things,we show how they are similar;when we contrast two things,we show how they are different.We may compare or contrast two schools,two cars,two friends,two jobs,two cities,etc.。For this purpose,we may employ the combined techniques of comparison and contrast.In writing the essay,you should always bear two important decisions in mind:①Whether you are to do a comparison,a contrast,or a mixtu...

    第二十三单元 如何用举例法推展篇章 根据不同的写作目的,篇章写作一般分为四种主要类型: 1)Narration(叙述文) 2)Description(描写文) 3)Exposition(说明文) 4)Persuasion and argumentation(议论文) 从本单元起,我们将着重介绍在大学统考中应用得最为广泛的说明文。说明文常用于阐述事物的特征、本质、性能、结构、用途等。抽象的说明是很难让人理解和接受的,所以在进行说明时我们常用举例法、比较与对照法、定义与分类法、过程分析法和因果法等写作方法推展段落和篇章。这些方法均已...

    第三十三单元 英文书信写作English Letter Writing 33.1 Introduction Letter writing tests the English letter writing skill of the examinees.In this unit,we are going to focus on different types of letter writing,their form and language.We will also give you some advice on how to write an effective English letter. 33.2 Type of letters(信的类型) English letters are generally divided into two types: a.personal letters个人书信 b.business letters事务书信 33.3 Form(格式) An English letter usually consists of six parts:heading(信头),inside address(收信人地址),salutation(称呼),body(信主体),...

    第三十四单元 转换词语Transitional Words and Phrases 34.1 Introduction In the writing of English compositions,we have to use transitional words or phrases in order to make logical connections between individual sentences and paragraphs as well as enhance the overall coherence of an essay.Otnerwise,the paragraph or the essaywill be loosely connected.To see the difference,let's compare the following two versions of a paragraph: (1) Speaking and writing are different in many ways.Speech depends on sounds.Writing uses written symbols.Speech developed about 500,000 years ago.Written language is a comparativel...

    第三十五单元 总复习Revision Exercises As is known to all,‘practice makes perfect’。Good,effective writing can only be achieved through much practice.So in this unit,we intend to give you 20 topics for your writing practice. Exercise 35-1 Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the title“Computers”。You should base your composition on the following outline.Your composition should be about 120 words.Remember to write clearly. Computers 1)计算机在现代社会中的作用; 2)计算机在家庭中的作用; 3)你对计算机的看法。 Exercise 35-2 Directions:Write a 3-para...

    31.1 Introduction A title-given composition requires students to grasp the ideas expressed in the title,and to create a piece of writing that has unity,support and coherence. Because there is no hints or any extra information in addition to the title.This kind of writing is comparatively difficult.But students may have a lot of freedom in writing. Sample Test Item Directions:Write a composition on the topic“Should Firecrackers Be Banned?”Your composition should be at least 100words.Remember to support the main idea with details and make your conclusion.Coherence is also important. Write clearl...

    to Tables and Graphs 32.1 Introduction This kind of writing is an information interpretation process.The information may be given in numbers,lines or curves,etc.,usually a few explanations are given.The organization of the writing is essential to a good essay of tables and graphs.Generally,it is as follows: General introduction——Analysis——Conclusion 概要介绍——分析图表——总结概括 That is,in the first paragraph,you have to demonstrate the general situation of what has been reflected in the table or graph;Then,in the second paragraph,you have to analyse carefully the numbers,lines or curves,and point out...

    29.1 Introduction This is the most common composition practised in CET-4.Usually the title and the topic sentences of each paragraph are given.You are required to write exactly according to the title.You must use the given topic sentences. Sample Test Item: Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about“Television ”in three paragraphs. You are given the first sentence of each paragraph an dare required to develop the idea in completing the paragraph.Your composition should be about 100words,not including the words given. Remember to write clearly. Television 1...

    30.1 Introduction In this kind of composition,a series of key words are given together with the title.It requires students' imagination and association in connecting the words logically without going astray from the main topic. Sample Test Item 指示:在30分钟内以“City and Countryside”为题,写一篇120词左右的短文,必需包括下列关键词及表达方式,要求使用正确、恰当。 Key Words and Expressions: similarities differences environment transportation education entertainment colourful boring public health servic reduce the gap 30.2 Analysis and Advice on How to Achieve Successful Writing 1) Read the direction...

    According to the syllabus and the practice up till now,CET—4composition usually has the following five types:situational composition(情景作文),key words composition(关键词作文),topic sentence composition(主题句作文),title-given composition(给出题目作文) and writing a composition according to tables and graphs(图表作文)。 The examinees are required to follow the directions and develop the composition into three paragraphs to form an essay of no less than 100 words in 30 minutes.The essay should be clear,coherent and grammatically correct.Therefore,from this unit on,we are going to introduce...

    27.1 Cause and Effect(因果法) The stating of facts and the giving of reasons to explain why and how the facts came about is the basic procedure in essay development by cause and effect.The technique of cause and effect has great flexibility,for the relationships between causes and effects are not always as clear cut as the two terms seem to suggest.Causes may not all carry the same weight,for example.Several contributing causes may be grounded together to form one important cause.There may be one effect to a cause,or there may be many.Effects may be less important than causes,and so on.So you hav...

    25.1 Definition and Classification(定义与分类) A writer often employs more than one method of development in an essay.In order to make it easier or clearer for the reader,the author may,for instance,decide to classify objects,events or terms by retaining a few classes rather than many specific items.Additionally,he may need to define the lables he uses in classifying the subject,especially if the lables are not widely known or are abstract. 在进行定义或分类写作时需注意:1)在进行诠释(定义)时,一定要具体、确切;2)分类时要周密,标准必须对应划一,不能交错重叠。 Model Essay...

    26.1 Process(过程法) Process descripton is similar to the procedures followed in conducting a scientific experiment.It describes definite steps in a logical order. In this unit,you will be asked to write a process essay—one that explains clearly how to do or make something. In almost all the essays we have discussed,the topic sentence has appeared at or near the beginning of the first paragraph.In a well constructed process description,the topic sentence establishes the context of the process developed in succceeding sentences and paragraphs.Notice that in the following model essay the process of...

    24.1 Comparison and Contrast(比较与对照) Often we may want to describe several aspects of two subjects that have both similarities and differences.When we compare two things,we show how they are similar;when we contrast two things,we show how they are different.We may compare or contrast two schools,two cars,two friends,two jobs,two cities,etc.。For this purpose,we may employ the combined techniques of comparison and contrast.In writing the essay,you should always bear two important decisions in mind:①Whether you are to do a comparison,a contrast,or a mixture,or②Whether you are to use an item-to-ite...

    根据不同的写作目的,篇章写作一般分为四种主要类型: 1)Narration(叙述文) 2)Description(描写文) 3)Exposition(说明文) 4)Persuasion and argumentation(议论文) 从本单元起,我们将着重介绍在大学统考中应用得最为广泛的说明文。说明文常用于阐述事物的特征、本质、性能、结构、用途等。抽象的说明是很难让人理解和接受的,所以在进行说明时我们常用举例法、比较与对照法、定义与分类法、过程分析法和因果法等写作方法推展段落和篇章。这些方法均已在段落推展法之四、五、六、七、八、...

    21.1 段落和篇章 段落和篇章在长度上有明显的不同,但是它们在结构上是一致的。首先,段落是由表达其主题思想的主题句(Topic Sentence)或主题导句(Topic Introducer)引出的,而篇章中的首段也是该篇文章主题思想的导言和引言;其次,一个段落必须有若干个展开句使主题思想得以展开和充实,同样篇章的主体部分也是由几个推展或后续首段主题思想的段落组成。再者,在段落结束时有一个结尾句(Concluding Sentence)总结段落的主旨,篇章也同样有一个对上下文进行归纳和总结主题思想的末段。尽管...

    22.1 篇章的统一性(Unity of an Essay) 篇章的统一性是指各推展段落都必须紧扣主题思想,不包含与主题思想无关的任何部分。如果包含与主题思想无关的部分或出现多层意思,就会导致主旨不清,思路混乱。 22.2 篇章的支撑性(Support of an Essay) 只有通过具体的实例、事实、细节或事件对篇章中的主题思想加以充实和发挥,才能使文章的主题更加明确具体。例如:在Unit 21-2范文中的四个Supporting Paragraphs(SP1,SP2,SP3,SP4)都是通过具体的实例、细节,来进一步明确本篇文章的主题思想—To be successf...

    19.1 重要性顺序排列法 前面我们已经讨论了组织段落的两种方法——时间顺序法(time-order)和空间顺序法(space-order)。组织段落的第三种方法是根据重要性排列的方法(to organize details according to their order of importance)。作者使用这种方法的依据是他认为所选用的细节应如何加以强调。 使用重要性顺序法,可选用上升顺序(ascending order),或下降顺序(aescending oraer)。前者先列举次要观点,把重要的留到最末(如示范段落17-1),后者先强调最重要的观点,然后列举次要观点(如示范段落4-1)。 1...

    20.1 混合方法(Mixed Patterns) 到目前为止,我们讨论了九种推展段落方法——1)事实数据法(facts and statistics);2)叙述法(narration);3)描述法(description);4)过程分析法(process analysis);5)定义法(definition);6)举例法(examples);7)比较对比法(comparison and contrast);8)分类法(division and classification);9)因果法(cause and effect)。我们还讨论了四种组织段落的方法:1)时间顺序法(time order);2)空间顺序法(space order);3)重要性顺序法(order of importance);4)熟悉度顺序法(ord...

    16.1分类法 分类法(division and classification)是把一事物拆成几部分,表明这些部分与整体的关系。通常,作者以总类开头,然后把总类拆开,——列举部分或全部分类。 示范段落16-1 There are three basic kinds of materials that can be found in any good library.First,there are books on all subjects,both in English and in many other languages.These books are organized according to subject,title,and author in a central filing system called card catalog.Books can generally be checked out of the library and taken home for a period of two to four weeks.Second,there are reference materials,...

    17.1因果法 因果法(cause and effect)段落通常回答“why?”的问题。大多数人认为在自己或别人生活中发生的事情必然事出有因,因此总要知道为什么会发生这样或那样的事情。原因(cause)指的是导致结果的发生在过去的事情,结果(effect)指的是已发生的事情将会产生的后果。 17.2结果法 解释一个原因(cause)的几个结果(effects)的段落,可能以下面两种顺序之一出现:或者以原因开头,接着指出一个一个结果,如下面示范段落17-1所示;或首先摆出结果,然后指出原因。 示范段落17-1 Many peo...

    18.1原因法 有时,一个结果会源于几个原因。同样,段落可或以结果开头或以结果结束,作者可以从熟悉到不熟悉的原因逐一分析,或是从分析一个又一个读者不熟悉的原因开头,最后引出读者熟悉的结果。选用哪一种,决定于作者认为哪一种更有说服力。 示范段落18-1 Several changes have brought wild animals to the cities.Foremost is,that air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control efforts.Meanwhile,rural areas have been built up,leaving many animals on the edges of suburbs.In addition,urban wildlife refuges...

    13.1举例法 举例法(examples)也是推展主题的主要方法。举例法有两种形式,一种是首先陈述自己的观点,然后举出一个或多个例子阐明观点;另一种是先举一个很长的例子,然后转入例子所要阐明的观点。 读下面段落: Courage is the willingness to take a risk when the outcome is uncertain,and when the risk taken may involve harm,loss,or danger to the one taking it.The courageous person fears no one and nothing.He or she is undaunted by danger or peril.He or she will venture boldly into an uncertain situation,hardly giving a thought to the harm or consequences which may res...

    ——比较与对比法 14.1比较与对比法 有时为了说明某一事物,需要与其他事物联系起来才能阐述清楚,这就是对比或比较(comparison or contrast)。比较方法和对比方法基本一致,不同的是比较强调两事物如何相同,对比强调两事物如何不同。 示范段落14-1 Life in the city is quite different from life in the suburbs.People living in the city are constantly exposed to the hustle and bustle of urban life.But life in the suburbs is generally quiet and casual and generally more low-key than in the city.If city dwellers want to see trees and grass,they must go to one of the p...

    15.1下定义法 下定义(definition)就是解释某事物是什么,不是什么。写下定义段落时,通常把概念或要下定义的事物置于一个大的类别中,然后解释该事物与同一类别的其它事物有何不同。下定义法多用作推展段落的辅助方法。 示范段落15-1 A pencil is an instrument for writing on paper.It is of cylindrical shape and can be held between the first two fingers of the hand.It is about 6 inches long and 1/4 inch wide.At the end there is usually an eraser attached to the pencil by a surrounding metal band.Lead is the material which is used in making the marks on the paper,and...

    10.1描述法 叙述讲述发生了什么事情,描述(description)则向读者描绘某事物的样子、声音、味道等等。作者可以通过外表、行动或变化用语言描绘一个人,一个物体,一个地方或一个场面。 示范段落10-1 A tsunami is a great wave or series of waves.It extends from the surface to the sea floor and moves the entire vertical section of ocean through which it speeds.The greater the ocean depth,the faster the tsunami travels.Speeds of up to 600 mph have been reached.Toward land it slows down as the bottom of the wave drags on the seabed;its crest rises from fifty to a hundred feet or more...

    11.1过程分析法 过程分析法(process analysis)用作支配方法时,其目的是告诉读者怎样做某事,说明某事物的工作原理或某事物的制造方法。 示范段落11-1 Even if you don't know how to cook,you'll never starve to death if you know how to prepare scrambled eggs.You begin by melting one tablespoon of butter in a frying pan over low heat.While the butter is melting,break three eggs into a bowl.Add 1/4teaspoon of salt,1/4 teaspoon of paprika,and three tablespoons of milk to the eggs in the bowl and mix them for about a minute.Pour the mixture into the frying pan,break them into shreds with a for...

    组织段落的常见方法有:1)时间顺序;2)空间顺序;3)重要性顺序和;4)熟悉度顺序。在前几单元,我们曾提到写叙述段落和过程分析时用时间顺序,写描述段落时用空间顺序。在这一单元里,我们将着重讨论这两种组织方法。另两种方法——重要性和熟悉度顺序——将在第19单元讨论。 12.1时间顺序法 段落内组织细节的最简单最常见的方法是时间顺序法(time order organization)。时间顺序通常用于叙述和过程分析——先发生什么,然后怎样,再然后怎样,等等。正如我们在示范段落9-1和示范段落...

    9.1叙述法 叙述法(narration)回答了“发生了什么”(what happened)这一问题。叙述经常用于讲述一系列事件。这种方法常用作小说(fiction)、传记(biographs)的支配方法,也可用作其他各种文体的辅助方法。例如,轶事(anecdotes)、寓言(fables)等都是用叙述形式阐述某一观点。 示范段落9-1 I was seven years old when I first became aware of the terrible power of guilt.For piling our toys into the toy box,Mother had rewarded my brother and me with five shiny pennies each.If I had ten pennies instead of just five,I could have bought a ginger bread man with...

    33.1 Introduction Letter writing tests the English letter writing skill of the examinees.In this unit,we are going to focus on different types of letter writing,their form and language.We will also give you some advice on how to write an effective English letter. 33.2 Type of letters(信的类型) English letters are generally divided into two types: a.personal letters个人书信 b.business letters事务书信 33.3 Form(格式) An English letter usually consists of six parts:heading(信头),inside address(收信人地址),salutation(称呼),body(信主体),complimentary close(结尾客套语)and signature(署...

    应用文是指人们在日常生活、工作和学习中为处理日常事务解决具体问题而写作的一种文体。它最突出的特点就是它的特点就是它的实际应用的性质。应用文包括的内容很广,如书信、通知、日记、海报、便条、启事等。应用文通常具备以下特点: 1、 有明确的读者对象,应用文都有明确的范围,特定的读者对象,并有明显的约束力。 2、 有较固定的格式,根据不同的内容和任务,不同的应用文有不同的相对稳定的格式和行文方式。 3、 有较强的时效性。 应用文在写作上要求在一定的时限内完成,...

    说明文是以说明为主要表达方式,介绍事物的形状、构造、性质、变化、类别、状态、功能、成因、结果等特征的文章。它是一种应用性很强的文体,说明的目的是让读者有所知,给读者提供知识,使之了解客观世界,掌握解决问题的方法。说明文的基本特点就是具有知识性、科学性、应用性、解说性和条理性。常见的说明文有:解说词、说明书、书文简介、内容提要、科普小品、生产工艺、操作规程和景物介绍等,常见说明方法有:定义、注释、举例、分类、比较、引用、比喻、描述、数字分析...

    第八单元 推展段落方法之一——事实与数据法 在第四单元,我们曾提到推展段落的方法有多种。从这一单元开始,我们将逐个介绍这些方法。 8.1事实与数据法 事实(a fact)是可以客观证实的事情。例如:“The sunrises in the east.”是个事实。“Oil and water do not mix.”也是个事实。两者都可以通过实验证明是真实的。但是“Eating carrots improves eyesight.”也许是真实也许是不真实的。这不是个事实,是一种看法(opinion)。数据(a statistic)是一个数字事实(a numeral fact),用于给某一主题提供有意义的信息...

    第七单元 如何写好一个段落(Ⅱ) 7.1连贯性 段落的连贯性指的是段落的句子以清晰、符合逻辑的顺序(clear, logical sequence)连接。连贯性使读者能够找出每个观点之间的联系以及这些观点与主题句的联系。 7.2关于如何取得连贯性的建议 1)使用同一时态 如果随意而毫无理由地改变时态(tenses),那么不管作者连句的技巧多么高超,段落也不可能取得连贯性。在写作时,可以使用现在时( present tense)或过去时(past tense)。选用哪一种取决于作者处理材料的方式。 2)使用某种逻辑顺序 常用的逻...

    如何写好一个段落(Ⅰ) 6.1段落的特征 一个好的段落应该具有以下三个特征:1)完整性(completeness); 2)统一性(unity); 3)连贯性(coherence)。 6.2完整性 段落的完整性指的是段落得以充分展开。作者一俟写好主题句,就应该用细节进行推展,细节越充足越好。例如,你认为“Riding motorcycles is dangerous”,你就应该用你所知道的事实证明这一观点是正确的。你可以使用数字(statistics),列举例子(example),进行描绘(descriptions)等等。 示范段落6-1 Ever since the time of the Greeks, drama has played an...

    第五单元如何写结论句 5.1结论句 第一单元曾提到,段落由三个部分组成,最后一部分就是结论句( the concluding sentence)。结论句通常与主题句一样包含有段落的中心思想,然而所用措辞与主题句不同。 在示范段落 1-1,主题句是: We all know that cigarette smoking is a dangerous habit because it causes health problems. 结论句是: It is clearly identified as one of the chief causes of death in our society. 5.2关于写结论句的建议 1)把握主题句的关键词 例如在关于“cigarette smoking”的示范段落 1-1中,中心思想是“the health problems caused...

    第三单元 如何写好主题句 3.1关于写主题句的建议 1)要写合乎语法的句子 Example 1: Two causes of the American Civil War. 这个句子是个不完整的句子,不合乎语法,因此不能用作主题句。 Example 2: There were two causes that led to the American Civil War. 重写后的句子合乎语法,是个较好的主题句。 2)要使用限写词限定主题 为了正确表达观点,好的主题句经常使用关键词或词组,即限制词(controllers)限制这一观点。 Example 3: Air travel is more convenient than train for at least three reasons. 从上例主题句我们得知作者将要写“...

    第四单元 如何写推展句 4.1段落的推展 在前几单元中,我们谈到写段落的第一个步骤是写主题句。作者要对主题句在某些方面加以限制。第二个步骤将是写推展句。例如你要陈述你选择某院校的理由,第一步,写出主题句: There are two main reasons why I have decided to attend Bingston University next year. 第二步,以数个理由推展你的主题: 示范段落4-1 ① There are two main reasons why I have decided to attend Bingston University next year.② First of all, there is the question of money:Bingstonv's tuition is reasonable and I don't even have to pay it all...

    第一单元 段落简介 1.1段落 段落是构成文章的一组句子。段落必须表达完整的意思:或描写事物(describe something),或争论某事(argue about something),或对某事提出疑问(question something),或要求什么(demand something),或给事物下定义(define something),或驳斥某观点(reject something)。 1.2典型段落的构成 一个典型的段落通常由三部分组成:(1)主题句(the topic sentence);(2)说明或支持主题的推展句( supporting sentences);(3)结论句(the concluding sentence)(有些段落没有该部分)。 示范段落1...

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    1. 掌握技巧——如何写好篇章结构 2. 巧用连接词——连接上下文的关键 3. 落实基础——句型练习 (一)写作基础讲解与练习: 掌握如何写好篇章的技巧: (1)注意篇章结构,合理布局 开始部分(opening paragraph)——说出文中的要点、核心问题。 正文部分(Body paragraphs)——围绕主题开展叙述、讨论。 结尾部分(concluding paragraphs)——对全文的总结和概括。 要做到全文中心突出、段落之间必须是有机地联系,内容完整、连贯。前后呼应,祛除与主题无关的内容。 (2)确定主题句 主题句是对全...

    很多学生在参加考试时“书面表达”失分较多,拖累笔试总成绩,甚至直接导致考试不合格。因此, 辅导学生练好“书面表达”是我们英语老师的一项重要内容。我们英语科组的教师特别是担任99级教学任务的英语教师也就“书面表达”项目进行过广泛的研讨,希望从中找出更多规律性的东西,更好地帮助学生提高写作技巧。其中也有老师提出了较有参巧价值的建议。笔者也参与过同时也正从事学生英语等级考试的辅导工作,对辅导学生做好“书面表达”也有点滴心得。本着抛砖引玉共同提高的想...

    (一)掌握技巧: (1)注意篇章结构,合理布局 开始部分(opening paragraph)——说出文中的要点、核心问题。 正文部分(Body paragraphs)——围绕主题开展叙述、讨论。 结尾部分(concluding paragraphs)——对全文的总结和概括。 要做到全文中心突出、段落之间必须是有机地联系,内容完整、连贯。前后呼应,祛除与主题无关 的内容。详细可以参情况考ESL资源网站 里面的writing部分。 (2)确定主题句 主题句是对全文的概括,是文章的主旨。它能在文章中起到“画龙点睛”的作用。通常主题句出现 在...

    《应用写作》,始创于1985年,是目前中国惟一的专门研究探讨应用写作理论和技法、传播现代应用文写作知识、面向国内外公开发行的综合性月刊,系全国应用写作学科核心期刊,以其“关注学科前沿、重视实际应用,兼顾理论指导性与实践操作性”的刊物风格深受全国广大文秘工作者、应用写作研究者和写作教师的喜爱与好评。随着中国的入世,中外交流日益频繁,英文应用写作业崭露头角...

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