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智商测试

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From University of Alberta:

Smarter ways to measure intelligence than IQ, says University of Alberta researcher

Measuring a child's IQ is an obsolete way to determine intelligence, and in fact, labels youngsters unfairly, according to a University of Alberta professor.
根据Alberta大学的一位教授的说法,通过测量儿童的智商(IQ)来确定其智力的方法是陈旧的,同时事实上,这种贴标签的方法也是不公平的。
Building on a theory he began researching almost 20 years ago, Dr. J.P. Das has developed ' rules and tools of intelligence' which point to factors other than IQ (Intelligence Quotient) in measuring how 'smart' a child is.
基于其从20年前就开始研究的一个理论,Das博士编制了同其他智商测试不同的关于如何测量一个孩子有多聪明的标准与工具。
''A child growing up in the slums or in a household with no literacy or books could be very street-smart, yet not have the school learning required for the traditional measurement of IQ,'' says Das, Professor Emeritus in educational psychology at the University of Alberta.
来自Alberta大学的退休教育心理学教授Das说,一个成长在贫民窟或者普通家庭,没有接受教育的儿童可以很聪明,但传统的智商测试必须要求曾经在学校学习过。
Das presented his Rules and Tools of Intelligence: How IQ became obsolete in a keynote address at the 28th International Congress of Psychology held in Beijing, China in August, and the system is now being used all over the world, and is being translated into several languages. Using a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Das is currently working with children in an Alberta aboriginal community to explore learning problems.
Das博士介绍了他关于智力的标准与测量工具:在八月份北京召开的第28届国际心理学大会上发表了智商是怎样变的陈旧为主题的演讲,同时这套方法已经在全世界使用,即将被翻译成各国的语言。经加拿大社会科学和人文研究委员会的批准,Das博士现在在Alberta的一个土著居民区展开关于如何学习的问题的研究。
Das identifies four 'rules of intelligence' that go into information processing. The rules include a belief that intelligence is not fixed, but is influenced by such factors as learning and cultural demands, cognitive abilities, even school attendance, as well as individual ability to process information such as language and face recognition.
Das博士确定了四种可以研究信息处理的智力标准。其中包括智力不是固定不变的,受诸如学习与文化需求、认知能力等因素的影响,甚至于到校的次数与个人在处理诸如言语和表象等的信息处理过程。
The rules guide the research on PASS theory, developed by Das and two colleagues in 1994. PASS (an acronym for Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive processing) has shown that intelligence should not be measured alone by school learning and IQ testing, but by information processing that occurs during this learning. ''What goes into intellectual abilities and how a person solves a problem is more important than a score itself,'' said Das.
标准知道在PASS理论上的研究,该理论是Das博士与其两位同事在1994年提出来的。PASS理论(是计划、注意、同时性、成功处理的英文简称)认为智力的测量不应是仅仅对学校学习与智商的测量,而应该是当学习是对信息处理的测量。Das博士说,什么影响智力能力和一个人如何解决问题是比一个分数本身更重要的。
A system for cognitive assessment based on PASS has been available since 1997, following standardized testing on 3,000 children and teens, and has been adopted by school districts in the United States, including Los Angeles.
从1997年开始,一套基于PASS理论的认知评估系统已经开始使用,是通过对3000名儿童的标准化测试得到的,并已经在美国的学区包括洛杉矶使用。
IQ testing can stigmatize a child permanently, causing more harm than good, Das said. ''When a child is labelled as gifted, you are happy. But when he is labelled as borderline intelligent, as a parent you think, 'What did I do? I must have committed a sin.'''
智商测试给一个孩子永远地打上一个烙印,导致的坏处多于好处。Das博士说,当一个孩子被贴以天才的标签,他会很高兴,但他被贴以智力的边线时候,作为他的父母亲,你会想:我做了什么?我犯罪了。
Using the PASS rules of intelligence, teachers in the classroom can individualize their program planning for students, Das says. ''Rather than categorizing and labelling, a teacher can explore the different thought process of each child as unique.''
使用PASS的智力标准,教师可以使起针对学生的计划更有个性。Das博士说,教师可以探索每个学生唯一不同的思考过程而不是将他们进行分类和贴标签。

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  Historical records make no mention of the source of the copper used in the construction of the Statue of Liberty, although a local tradition suggests that the copper came from the French-owned Visnes Mine near Stavanger, Norway. One of the mines that provided high-purity ore to the European metals industry in the late nineteenth century was the Visnes Mine in Norway. This mine was in operation throughout much of the latter half of the nineteenth century, and local tradition has it that copper from the mine was used for the Statue of Liberty. Records show that ore from this mine, refined in France and Belgium, was a significant source of European copper in the late nineteenth century. To investigate further the origin of the statue’s copper, “Bell Laboratories” in New Jesey, USA, have analyzed the samples of copper from the Visnes Mines and from the Statue of Liberty by emission spectrograph. Bell Laboratories concluded that it is highly probable that the copper from the Visnes Mine was used for the Statue of Liberty, and that the metallurgical evidence argues strongly that the copper comes from Norway. In the autumn of 1985, copper from the statue was analyzed and it has now been confirmed that it was indeed extracted at Visnes.

  1. What is the main topic of the passage?

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