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测量显示:阿拉斯加冰川迅速融化

时间:2011-01-15 01:12 点击:
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美国地质局于周四公布的研究结果表明:位于阿拉斯加和华盛顿州的三大冰川较之过去明显变薄和缩小,向人们发出了气候变暖的明确信号。

这三座冰川,由位于阿拉斯加的高加纳冰川和伍弗兰冰川,以及位于华盛顿州的南喀斯克德冰川组成,由于它们与所在区域其它冰川十分类似,因而被认为是处于高山气候和海洋性气候冰川的测定基准,并于1957年确立为相关研究课题。

“这是北美质量变化率记录时间最久的三座冰川。”安克雷奇市(美国阿拉斯加中南部港市)美国地质勘探局冰河学家,该报告作者之一的沙德·俄奈尔说:

“虽然这三座冰川有着各自不同的气候特征,但却都体现着一个相似的活动模式,即质量亏损。”

科学家仍在对融化中的冰川保持着严密的监视,而海平面的上升将会威胁到全世界沿海和地势低洼的地区。

最新的研究将用于计算质量的因素——历年冰雪厚度和密度的记录做以比较。据美国地质调查局报告,当融化速度超过冰雪累积速度时,冰川出现质量损失,而对于这三座冰川,其损失在过去的15年间尤为显著。

“然而,仅靠这三座冰川以及它们的变化还不足以证明全球变暖,”沙德·俄奈尔说:“但它们的活动模式符合温暖气候或干燥气侯,或两者兼而有之。”

“当然,它们所在之地的气候已不能再反映出这些冰川仍处于健康状态。”他说。

Ed 爵斯伯格,以华盛顿州的塔科马港为研究基地的美国地质勘探局的水文学者,主持了这项研究。他说:“对高加纳、伍弗兰和南喀斯克德冰川的研究结果,反映了全球冰川的活动趋势。”

“毫无疑问,由于受温暖气候影响,全球绝大多数高山冰川都正在渐渐消融。”在内政部发表的一项声明中,爵斯伯格如是说。

译文:Alaska glaciers shrinking fast: survey

Three major glaciers in Alaska and Washington state have thinned and shrunk dramatically, clear signs of a warming climate, according to a study released Thursday by the U.S. Geological Survey.

The three glaciers -- Gulkana and Wolverine in Alaska and South Cascade in Washington -- are considered benchmarks for those in alpine and maritime climates because they closely parallel other glaciers in their regions. They have also been the subject of close scientific scrutiny since 1957.

"These are the three glaciers in North America that have the longest record of mass change," said Shad O'Neel, a United States Geological Survey glaciologist in Anchorage who was one of the study authors.

"All three of them have a different climate from the other two, yet all three are showing a similar pattern of behavior, and that behavior is mass loss."

Scientists are keeping a close watch on melting glaciers, as a rise in sea-levels would threaten coastal and low-lying areas around the world.

The latest study compares records of snow and ice thickness and densities over the years, the factors used to calculate mass. The glaciers have lost mass as melting outpaced new snow and ice accumulation, and for all three, the losses were especially dramatic over the past 15 years, according to the USGS study.

By themselves, the glaciers and their changes are not proof of global warming, he said. But their behavior fits with a pattern of warmer weather or drier weather or both.

"It certainly says that the place where these glaciers are, the climate is not supportive of healthy glaciers anymore," he said.

Ed Josberger, the Tacoma, Washington-based USGS hydrologist who coordinated the study, said the results from the Gulkana, Wolverine and South Cascade glaciers mirror worldwide trends.

"There is no doubt that most mountain glaciers are shrinking worldwide in response to a warming climate," Josberger said in a statement released by the Department of Interior.

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