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阿拉斯加北坡,北极熊观光旅游火爆

时间:2011-01-14 21:51 点击:
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迎着吹过北福海的北极寒风,随着匆忙前进的游客,小船快速平稳地穿过环礁湖。当我们以弧形环绕一片沙土地进入邻近的环礁湖时,穿越了一片“白骨地带”-那是一处土著民捕杀北极鲸后留下的没用的东西。我们刚刚离开卡特维卡的因纽特村,气温是华氏30多度 ,微风吹拂,我们的目的地是伯纳德岬,就在巴特岛旁边。

因朗格萨可减慢了速度,我们慢慢沿着海岸行进。好奇的北极熊抬起头,有一只将长脖子伸向空中,嗅嗅风中的气味,但是它们对我们并无恶意。

在海水全部结冰之前,北极熊通常利用巴特岛附近的珊瑚岛和沙地作为休息、捕食的地方,做短暂停留。然而,要想看到成群结队的北极熊,只有在一个地方,就是鲸聚集的地方。九、十月份经常可以看到成群结对的白熊在此游荡。就在卡特维卡居民捕杀北极鲸前后的一段时间。鱼类和野生动物的监测数据可以追溯到200年(仅在九月份),数据显示熊的数量变化很大,2003年最高,有61只,2006年最低,只有25只。2009年的数字还没有出来,但是村民报告说这一地区有大约36-54只,在我们两个小时的乘船行程中也只看见了两只北极熊。

因朗格萨可说,卡特维卡的因纽特人自古就与熊“和谐相处”。卡特维卡的每个每家每户都有在家门口和在屋里打盹儿时与熊遭遇的故事。然而,现在他们把熊作为一种重要的经济资源来看待。

利用当地人的知识和经验来开发旅游,有助于当地经济发展,一家权威机构提出,北极熊的数量正面临挑战,卡特维卡北极熊的数量越来越少。

在“白骨地带”,正在观测另一种北极熊,距离这个小镇几英里之外的一个隐密的小岛上。在那里,黄昏时分,大群的北极熊在那里聚集,寻求一顿免费的晚餐。去那里要乘卡车,道路紧邻飞机跑道,四面环海。居民的卡车和乘有旅客的旅馆的汽车挤满了道路,大家都要到那儿去看熊。

在一群慌乱的海鸥中间,三只北极熊正在争抢食物。那是一只几天前捕到的一职50多英尺长的鲸,剩余的肉还不错,熊并肩进食时。我们紧靠卡车,别的熊来了,有的从水里钻出来,有的慢慢地沿路走来。有时五只、六只 八只,大小都有,都能找到吃食的地方。一大块鲸肉撕下,一只拖着一条受伤的后腿的熊,也蹒跚挤进来抢食吃。当地人和游客一样,关心它的命运,我们都想知道的是它受伤的原因。

译文:Polar bear tourism booms on Alaska's North Slope

With its passengers bundled against the arctic wind blowing off the Beaufort Sea, the small boat speeds smoothly across the lagoon. We pass the "bone pile" — the place where the unused remains of Native-caught bowhead whales are left — as we arc around a sandy point and into the adjacent lagoon. With temperatures in the 30s and a light wind blowing, we've just left the Inupiaq village of Kaktovik. Our destination is Bernard Spit, just off Barter Island.

Inlangasak reduces our speed, and we move slowly toward shore. The bears, naturally curious, look up — one cranes its long neck to the sky, sniffing the wind — but they hardly pay us any mind.

Polar bears have historically used the barrier islands and sand spits around Barter Island as a resting place, a feeding place and a stopover until winter sea ice forms. However, the possibility of seeing large numbers of bears in one place can be linked to the local whaling. The greatest numbers of bears loafing in the area are typically found in September and October, just prior, during and after the time Kaktovik residents hunt bowhead whales. Fish and Wildlife monitoring dating back to 2002 (for September only) show a high degree of variability in bear numbers: a high of 61 bears in 2003 and a low of 25 in 2006. Data for 2009 is not available, but villagers reported between 36 and 54 bears in the area. We saw 20 on my two-hour boat trip.

The Inupiat of Kaktovik have lived with the bears in relative "harmony since the beginning of time," Inlangasak says. Every family in Kaktovik has a story about a polar bear in their entryway or taking a nap under their house. Now, however, they also view the bears as an important economic resource.

This effort to develop tourism that takes advantage of local knowledge and experience and contributes to the local economy, with an overarching agency mandate and concern over polar bear populations is a challenge, and it is playing out on the ground in Kaktovik.

One area where another type of polar bear watching is ongoing is the bone pile, which is situated on private land several miles from town. It is here that large numbers of polar bears congregate beginning at dusk for a free dinner. Accessible by truck, the road to the pile runs adjacent to the town airstrip, which is surrounded on either side by water. The trucks of residents mix with tourist vehicles from a lodge — everyone is there to watch the bears.

Among a flurry of gulls, three polar bears are tugging at the carcass. A 50-plus foot whale was caught several days before, and the pickings are still good. We stick to the truck as the bears feed shoulder to shoulder. Other bears arrive, some from the water; others wander slowly down the road. Five, six, eight at a time — bears of all sizes find their place to eat. One bear with a bad rear leg hobbles into the scrum before moving out with a large hunk of whale. Locals and tourists alike are concerned for his fate, and we all wonder at the cause of the injury.

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不会俄语也能学唱俄语歌--只要学会俄语字母,把俄语单词里的字母依次读出来就行--正确率在95%以上。
怎么认俄语字母呢?如果有老师手把手面对面地教,那当然最好,不过没有老师也不要紧,用“旁门左道”--拿英文字母或汉语拼音来和俄语字母一一对应。请看下文:

А а 元音 对应汉语拼音a
Б б 浊辅音 对应汉语拼音b 嗓音要加重
В в 浊辅音 对应英文字母V 注意不能成汉语拼音U
Г г 浊辅音 对应汉语拼音g 嗓音要加重
Д д 浊辅音 对应汉语拼音d 嗓音要加重
Е е 元音 对应汉语拼音ye,或者汉字“也”
Ё ё 元音 对应汉语拼音yo,介于汉字“舀”和“约”之间,嘴唇要撅起来
Ж ж 浊辅音 近似汉字“日”,但差别较大,舌头不要卷曲,声带要振动且有强烈的摩擦音
З з 浊辅音 对应英文字母z ,注意,与汉语拼音的z完全不同
И и 元音 对应汉语拼音i
Й й 浊辅音 读音有点像И,所以有时叫做“短И”,但它是辅音,有摩擦音,发音极为短促
К к 清辅音 对应汉语拼音k,注意,发音要轻,有时听起来反而近似于汉语拼音g,但俄文字母К是清辅音,所以声带不振动
Л л 浊辅音 对应英文字母L
М м 浊辅音 对应汉语拼音m
Н н 浊辅音 对应汉语拼音n
О о 元音 对应汉语拼音o
П п 浊辅音 对应汉语拼音p, 注意,发音要轻,有时听起来反而近似于汉语拼音b,但俄文字母П是清辅音,所以声带不振动
Р р 浊辅音 所谓“舌音”,介于汉语拼音r和l之间,并且舌头要打个滚儿,有点象赶马车时候喊的&ld

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