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人造甜味剂对我们真的百害而无一益吗?

时间:2011-01-14 21:47 点击:
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食用过量的蔗糖会使人变胖,但是食用很多人工甜味剂。。。又会怎么样呢?致命?变瘦?还是根本毫无反应呢?四十年前,FDA(美国食品与药物管理局)第一次发布禁令,禁止糖精--史上第一种人工甜味剂的使用。然而,今天科学家们仍然没有达成共识,到底人工甜味剂是否食用安全或者是否有害。事到如今,难道我们不该好好弄个究竟吗?

1879年,约翰霍普金斯大学科学家康斯坦丁法尔贝里发现第一种人工甜味剂--糖精。当他在研究煤焦油衍生物时,他无意中尝到手上、臂上一种带甜味的物质。当时没有人知道法尔贝里为什么舔吃身体上的不知名的物质,但是他的确做了一件大好事。早在1911年,持有怀疑态度的科学家认为那是一种会改变食物组成的“杂质”,并且试图禁止使用这一物质,但是糖精变得很受欢迎并在一战、二战时定量配给,用来使食物变甜。糖精比天然蔗糖甜上300倍还没有热量,美中不足的是食用后会留下一种难吃的金属味道。所以,1951年人造糖精上市时,餐饮公司还是选择那些尝起来甜得更天然的产品。到1968年,美国人每年消费了1700万磅这种不含热量的物质,主要用于快餐食品、听装罐头还有软饮料中,比如可口可乐、百事可乐。

但是,20世纪六十年代后期,研究表明糖精与癌症有关联。有人发现被注入含有糖精的化学物质的胚胎发育出畸形小鸡,这让科学家们好奇是不是还在肚子里的胎儿也会被受到如此影响,因为他们有个爱喝可乐的妈妈。另外一个研究也表明,老鼠的恶性膀胱肿瘤与甜味剂有关。1958年,美国一项国会修正案要求FDA发布指令禁止使用任何可致癌的食品添加剂,以至于1969年十月十八日,政府下发规定禁止食品中添加糖精。

1977年,一项研究显示糖精有助于带有癌物质的老鼠恢复,FDA的禁令失败了,但是生产商仍被要求在包装上表明糖精含量。2000年,糖精终归正名,联合政府最终把他从疑似致癌物质的列表中移除了。

1981年,合成甜味剂天冬甜素正式被允许使用,它为糖精不好的公众形象正名,成为节食可乐最主要的添加剂。1995年到1996年这段时间里,各种关于天冬甜素的误传充斥网络世界,从多发性硬化到海湾战争综合症,他们都来找甜味剂的麻烦。尽管天冬甜素的确对一些人产生不良反应,特别是那些不能代谢胺基酸苯丙胺酸的人,但是已经被证明超过200次,并且每次测试都证明节食可乐可以被安全饮用。100多个对三氯蔗糖的临床试验中表明,这种化学物质对身体健康毫无影响,这种蔗糖是食物、饮品或者口香糖中被化学转化的糖分子。

在人造甜味剂市场上,恐慌和误传似乎深深植根于人们的错误观念中。没有证据显示甜味剂会导致肥胖,过度肥胖的人却应该多吃这种甜味剂。然而,最近的研究表明人造甜味剂可能与肥胖有关联,这种添加剂和体重增加的直接关系还有待研究。在科学界,一项共识就是适当食用糖精、天冬甜素还有三氯蔗糖对人体是毫无危害的。尽管环磺酸盐(一种有害的甜精)在美国还是被禁止的,许多其他国家允许使用。在加拿大甚至还可以发现:低热量添加剂不会让你减肥,也不回影响食欲。它只会让不甜的食物尝起来更好却毫无伤害,就是那种甜甜的味道!

译文:Are Artificial Sweeteners Really That Bad for You?

Artificial sweeteners Splenda by McNeil Nutritionals and Equal by Merisant

Too much sugar will make you fat, but too much artificial sweetenerwill ... do what exactly? Kill you? Make you thinner? Or haveabsolutely no effect at all? This week marks the 40th anniversary ofthe Food and Drug Administration's decision to ban cyclamate, the firstartificial sweetener prohibited in the U.S., and yet scientists stillhaven't reached a consensus about how safe (or harmful) artificialsweeteners may be. Shouldn't we have figur

The first artificial sweetener, saccharin, was discovered in 1879when Constantin Fahlberg, a Johns Hopkins University scientist workingon coal-tar derivatives, noticed a substance on his hands and arms thattasted sweet. No one knows why Fahlberg decided to lick an unknownsubstance off his body, but it's a good thing he did. Despite an earlyattempt to ban the substance in 1911 — skeptical scientists said it wasan "adulterant" that changed the makeup of food — saccharin grew inpopularity, and was used to sweeten foods during sugar rationings inWorld Wars I and II. Though it is about 300 times sweeter than sugarand has zero calories, saccharin leaves an unpleasant metallicaftertaste. So when cyclamate came on the market in 1951, food andbeverage companies jumped at the chance to sweeten their products withsomething that tasted more natural. By 1968, Americans were consumingmore than 17 million pounds of the calorie-free substance a year insnack foods, canned fruit and soft drinks like Tab and Diet Pepsi.

But in the late 1960s, studies began linking cyclamate to cancer.One noted that chicken embryos injected with the chemical developedextreme deformities, leading scientists to wonder if unborn humanscould be similarly damaged by their cola-drinking mothers. Anotherstudy linked the sweetener to malignant bladder tumors in rats. Becausea 1958 congressional amendment required the FDA to ban any foodadditive shown to cause cancer in humans or animals, on Oct. 18, 1969,the government ordered cyclamate removed from all food products.

Saccharin became mired in controversy in 1977, when a studyindicated that the substance might contribute to cancer in rats. An FDAmove to ban the chemical failed, though products containing saccharinwere required to carry warning labels. In 2000, the chemical wasofficially removed from the Federal Government's list of suspectedcarcinogens.

In 1981, the synthetic compound aspartame was approved for use, andit capitalized on saccharin's bad publicity by becoming the leadingadditive in diet colas. In 1995 and 1996, misinformation aboutaspartame that linked the chemical to everything from multiplesclerosis to Gulf War syndrome was widely disseminated on the Internet.While aspartame does adversely effect some people — including those whoare unable to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine — it has beentested more than 200 times, and each test has confirmed that your DietCoke is safe to drink. Nor have any health risks been detected in morethan 100 clinical tests of sucralose, a chemically altered sugarmolecule found in food, drinks, chewing gum and Splenda.

The fear-mongering and misinformation plaguing the faux-sweetenermarket seems to be rooted in a common misconception. No evidenceindicates that sweeteners cause obesity; people with weight problemssimply tend to eat more of it. While recent studies have suggested apossible ,a direct link between additives and weight gain has yet to be found.The general consensus in the scientific community is that saccharin,aspartame and sucralose are harmless when consumed in moderation. Andwhile cyclamate is still banned in the U.S., many other countries stillallow it; it can even be found in the Canadian version of Sweet'n Low.Low-calorie additives won't make you thinner or curb your appetite. Butthey help unsweetened food taste better without harming you. And that'ssweet enough.

ed this out by now?


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