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谁发明了微波?

时间:2011-01-14 11:53 点击:
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当然,问谁发明了微波就像问谁发明了电子一样。微波能量是一种自然能量,当电流通过导体时才发生。微波是一种电磁辐射类似于阳光和无线电微波。

微波炉简史

像今天许多伟大的发明一样,微波炉是另外一项技术的副产品。1946年,瑞生公司一个自学成才的工程师珀斯博士在进行镭射相关研究项目时,注意到了一些非同寻常的事件。当时他正在试验一种新的称为磁控管的真空管(我们正在寻找的一种1946年生产的磁控管的图像)他发现口袋里的冰糖棒融化了。这一点激起了斯宾塞博士的兴趣,于是他进行了另一个试验。这次他把一些玉米粒靠近管子,当玉米粒在实验室爆裂时,一丝创造的火花在他的眼里掠过。

第二天,大科学家斯宾塞决定把磁控管靠近鸡蛋。他邀请了另外一个好奇的同事加入进来,两人同是观察到鸡蛋开始震动和颤抖。当温度快速上升时,鸡蛋产生了巨大的压力。好奇的同事显然想看个个清楚,于是又靠近了一点,鸡蛋爆裂引起的蛋黄溅满了他惊奇的脸。斯宾塞马上得出了一个合乎逻辑的科学结论:融化的冰糖棒,爆米花,还有现在爆裂的鸡蛋,都是由于暴露在低密度的微波能量中的。如果这样,鸡蛋能被迅速煮熟,那么其他的食物为什么不能?于是,试验又开始了。

斯宾塞博士做了一个金属箱里面开了一个口,他放进了微波能量。能量进入箱子后无处可逃,于是就形成了一个高密度的电磁场。当食物被放进箱子时微波能量也进到食物里去了,食品的温度迅速上升。斯宾塞博士发明了即将改革烹饪业的微波炉。从而形成了数百万美元产业的基础。

接近6英尺高,重量750磅

工程师们在斯宾塞博士的新理论上,继续发展和提炼,并把它用于工业实践。到1946年年底,瑞生公司已经申请了一项专利技术,就是关于微波用于烹饪食品。一个用微波进行加热食品的炉子被放在了波士顿的一家餐馆进行试验。最后,1947年,第一台商业用微波炉问世。这些早期的产品十分庞大并且昂贵,大约有5尺半高,重达750磅。由于磁控管必须用水冷却,因此管道设备要求安装。

开始反应冷淡

许多人对这些早期产品并不感兴趣。这并不奇怪。因为他们发现这个产品使用范围有限。开始的销售情况并不好。。但是不久,随着技术的发展和改进,生产出了更可信赖的更便宜的重量更轻的微波炉。并且随着空气冷却磁控管技术的成熟,不需要再安装任何水管了。微波炉被广泛接受和认可。尤其是工业应用上。通过有效利用微波炉,餐饮业和零售商们可以把食品储藏在冰箱里,送到服务点时还是新鲜的,然后再顺序加热。结果是,食物更新鲜,花费更少,钱省下来了。

新领域的应用

食品业开始认识到微波炉应用的潜力和多用途。于是新的应用试验开始了。工业界开始用微波炉烤土豆片和咖啡豆及花生。肉类可以先通过它解冻,预热和加温。甚至牡蛎也可以用它来去壳。别的行业也认识到了可以用它来加热的优势。现在,微波已广泛应用到木材,陶瓷。纸张,皮革,纺织。铅笔,干花,烘书。火柴制作。微波炉已成为商业上的必需物可能会有无限的应用空间。

第一次应用于辐射

1947年,瑞生公司发明了第一台世界级的微波炉,它称做R。这是在公司员工竞赛时冠军的名字命名的。它放置在冰箱大小的陈列柜里,第一台微波炉花费了2000到3000美元。1952--1955年期间。T引进了第一台家用微波炉,售价为1295美元。1965年,瑞生公司获得了AR冷藏技术。两年后,第一台厨房用家用微波炉问世。它是一台只要100伏电压的微波炉。花费不到500美元体积更小,更安全,比以前的产品更受青睐。

1975年,随着瓦斯技术的应用与发展,微波在商业上的应用进一步发展,抛光后的微波炉被应用于消费者的厨房。然而,面对这些神秘而陌生的电子辐射技术,人们产生了许多不实的传言和害怕。到七十年代,越来越多的人们发现了微波煮食的好处超过了可能的危险。没有人因为使用微波炉而中毒,致盲,不孕可阳痿。(至少从使用情况上看)随着担心的消除,对微波的不断接受使它进入到了美国的厨房和其他国家的厨房。传言不攻自破。怀疑变成了需求。

1975年,微波炉的销售第一次超过了瓦斯范围据报道。日本有17%的家庭使用微波煮食。而美国同年只有4%。虽然不久之后,微波炉几乎装点了美国家庭14%,将进9百万的家庭使用它。1976年,大约有五千二百万家庭使用微波炉烹饪。占美国家庭用微皮炉的60%,应用比洗碗机更普通。由于微波炉储藏能量更方便,美国人的烹饪习惯已经发生了巨大的改变。曾经是奢侈品的微波炉,随着社会的进步进入了千家万户,成为人们生活所必需品。一个不断发展的市场需要有一种新的形式来满足人们的口味。包括尺寸,颜色,形状来适应厨房的需求,合理的价格来满足人们的钱袋所需。来满足人们煮食,烘烤,加热的实际需求。今天,微波烹饪的魔鬼力已经辐射到全球。成为一个国际化的现象。#p#分页标题#e#

发明家斯宾塞

斯宾塞博士继续在瑞生公司作高级顾问直到76岁那年逝世。去世的时候,斯宾塞博士已获得了150项专利,被认为是微波应用领域的领头人。尽管他没有受过高等教育。

1999年9月18日,斯宾塞博士进入美国发明家名人堂他在历史上的地位仅次于其他伟大的发明家如爱迪生,莱特兄弟,乔治华盛顿的旁边。

 

 

 

 

译文:Who Invented Microwaves?

Of course, asking "Who Invented Microwaves?" is like asking who invented electricity. Microwave energy is a natural phenomenon that occurs when electric current flows through a conductor. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation that is very similar to sunlight and radio waves.

A Brief History of the Microwave Oven
Like many of today's great inventions, the microwave oven was a by-product of another technology. It was during a radar-related research project around 1946 that Dr. Percy Spencer, a self-taught engineer with the Raytheon Corporation, noticed something very unusual. He was testing a new vacuum tube called a magnetron (we are searching for a picture of an actual 1946 magnetron), when he discovered that the candy bar in his pocket had melted. This intrigued Dr. Spencer, so he tried another experiment. This time he placed some popcorn kernels near the tube and, perhaps standing a little farther away, he watched with an inventive sparkle in his eye as the popcorn sputtered, cracked and popped all over his lab.

The next morning, Scientist Spencer decided to put the magnetron tube near an egg. Spencer was joined by a curious colleague, and they both watched as the egg began to tremor and quake. The rapid temperature rise within the egg was causing tremendous internal pressure. Evidently the curious colleague moved in for a closer look just as the egg exploded and splattered hot yolk all over his amazed face. The face of Spencer lit up with a logical scientific conclusion: the melted candy bar, the popcorn, and now the exploding egg, were all attributable to exposure to low-density microwave energy. Thus, if an egg can be cooked that quickly, why not other foods? Experimentation began...

Dr. Spencer fashioned a metal box with an opening into which he fed microwave power. The energy entering the box was unable to escape, thereby creating a higher density electromagnetic field. When food was placed in the box and microwave energy fed in, the temperature of the food rose very rapidly. Dr. Spencer had invented what was to revolutionize cooking, and form the basis of a multimillion dollar industry, the microwave oven.

Nearly 6 Feet Tall, Weighing 750 Pounds
Engineers went to work on Spencer's hot new idea, developing and refining it for practical use. By late 1946, the Raytheon Company had filed a patent proposing that microwaves be used to cook food. An oven that heated food using microwave energy was then placed in a Boston restaurant for testing. At last, in 1947, the first commercial microwave oven hit the market. These primitive units where gigantic and enormously expensive, standing 5 1/2 feet tall, weighing over 750 pounds, and costing about $5000 each. The magnetron tube had to be water-cooled, so plumbing installations were also required.


Initial Reactions Were Unfavorable
Not surprisingly, many were highly reluctant about these first units, and so they found only limited acceptance. Initial sales were disappointing...but not for long. Further improvements and refinements soon produced a more reliable and lightweight oven that was not only less expensive, but, with the development of a new air-cooled magnetron, there was no longer any need for a plumber.
The microwave oven had reached a new level of acceptance, particularly with regard to certain industrial applications. By having a microwave oven available, restaurants and vending companies could now keep products refrigerator-fresh up to the point of service, then heat to order. The result? Fresher food, less waste, and money saved.


New and Unusual Applications
As the food industry began to recognize the potential and versatility of the microwave oven, its usefulness was put to new tests. Industries began using microwaves to dry potato chips and roast coffee beans and peanuts. Meats could be defrosted, precooked and tempered. Even the shucking of oysters was made easier by microwaves. Other industries found the diverse applications of microwave heating quite advantageous. In time, microwaves were being used to dry cork, ceramics, paper, leather, tobacco, textiles, pencils, flowers, wet books and match heads. The microwave oven had become a necessity in the commercial market and the possibilities seemed endless.

The First "Radarange"

In 1947, Raytheon demonstrated the world's first microwave oven and called it a "Radarange," the winning name in an employee contest. Housed in refrigerator-sized cabinets, the first microwave ovens cost between $2,000 and $3,000. Sometime between 1952-55, Tappan introduced the first home model priced at $1295. In 1965 Raytheon acquired Amana Refrigeration. Two years later, the first countertop, domestic oven was introduced. It was a 100-volt microwave oven, which cost just under $500 and was smaller, safer and more reliable than previous models.

By 1975 Sales of Microwave Ovens Exceeded that of Gas Ranges
Technological advances and further developments led to a microwave oven that was polished and priced for the consumer kitchen. However, there were many myths and fears surrounding these mysterious new electronic "radar ranges." By the seventies, more and more people were finding the benefits of microwave cooking to outweigh the possible risks, and none of them were dying of radiation poisoning, going blind, sterile, or becoming impotent (at least not from using microwave ovens). As fears faded, a swelling wave of acceptance began filtering into the kitchens of America and other countries. Myths were melting away, and doubt was turning into demand.
By 1975, sales of microwave ovens would, for the first time, exceed that of gas ranges. The following year, a reported 17% of all homes in Japan were doing their cooking by microwaves, compared with 4% of the homes in the United States the same year. Before long, though, microwave ovens were adorning the kitchens in over nine million homes, or about 14%, of all the homes in the United States. In 1976, the microwave oven became a more commonly owned kitchen appliance than the dishwasher, reaching nearly 60%, or about 52 million U.S. households. America's cooking habits were being drastically changed by the time and energy-saving convenience of the microwave oven. Once considered a luxury, the microwave oven had developed into a practical necessity for a fast-paced world.

An expanding market has produced a style to suit every taste; a size, shape, and color to fit any kitchen, and a price to please almost every pocketbook. Options and features, such as the addition of convection heat, probe and sensor cooking, meet the needs of virtually every cooking, heating or drying application. Today, the magic of microwave cooking has radiated around the globe, becoming an international phenomenon.

Inventor Spencer
Doctor Spencer continued at Raytheon as a senior consultant until he died at the age of 76. At the time of his death, Dr. Spencer held 150 patents and was considered one of the world's leading experts in the field of microwave energy, despite his lack of a high school education.
On September 18, 1999, Dr. Percy LaBaron Spencer was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame and took his place in history alongside such great inventors as Thomas Edison, the Wright Brothers and George Washington Carver.

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On Meeting the Celebrated

I have always wondered at the passion many people have to meet the celebrated. The prestige you acquire by being able to tell your friends that you know famous men proves only that you are yourself of small account. The celebrated develop a technique to deal with the persons they come across. They show the world a mask, often an impressive on, but take care to conceal their real selves. They play the part that is expected from them, and with practice learn to play it very well, but you are stupid if you think that this public performance of theirs corresponds with the man within.

I have been attached, deeply attached, to a few people; but I have been interested in men in general not for their own sakes, but for the sake of my work. I have not, as Kant enjoined, regarded each man as an end in himself, but as material that might be useful to me as a writer. I have been more concerned with the obscure than with the famous. They are more often themselves. They have had no need to create a figure to protect themselves from the world or to impress it. Their idiosyncrasies have had more chance to develop in the limited circle of their activity, and since they have never been in the public eye it has never occurred to them that they have anything to conceal. They display their oddities because it has never struck them that they are odd. And after all it is with the common run of men that we writers have to deal; kings, dictators, commercial magnates are from our point of view very unsatisfactory. To write about them is a venture that has often tempted writers, but the failure that has attended their efforts shows that such beings are too exceptional to form a proper ground for a work of art. They cannot be made real. The ordinary is the writer’s richer field. Its unexpectedness, its singularity, its infinite variety afford unending material. The great man is too often all of a piece;

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