随你译
中国十佳翻译企业
客服热线:010-85806513
您当前的位置:随你译 > 翻译资讯 > 译文欣赏 > 人类罕见的能力可能解开记忆的奥秘

人类罕见的能力可能解开记忆的奥秘

时间:2011-01-13 21:50 点击:
TAGS: 翻译
翻译包月

作为一家新型的大型专业翻译公司随你译拥有中国首屈一指的翻译资源。通过3年的积累,已经拥有多达6万名专业注册译者,可以翻译56种语言,42个行业。大量的高素质译者保证我们可以给您提供最熟悉您行并业的专才译者队伍,通过我们卓有成效的管理体系,从而提供一个比同类公司在便捷、高质、价优、可信方面更为出色的翻译服务
客服热线:010-85806513

  给布莱德*威兼斯说出一个日期,他不但能告诉你那天他在干什么,而且能告诉你那天世界上发生的事情。他一生中几乎每一天都能这样做。

  据加利福尼亚大学欧文分校的研究人员所说,威兼斯是世界上仅有的三个经鉴定具有这一超常的自传体记忆的人之一。那里的研究人员给出这种状态的名称为:hyperthymestic综合症,这个词来自希腊语词意为过剩的(hyper)记忆(thymesis)。

与记忆随时间而淡化的多数人不同,威兼斯生活中的事情永远铭刻在他的记忆里。

“在脑海里挥之不去,”威兼斯说。五十一岁的他为威斯康星州拉克罗斯市好几家电台报告新闻。

研究的目标是找到为有记忆缺陷的人提供帮助的方法。

加利福尼亚的研究人员正在对威兼斯和别外两位具有记忆过剩综合症(hyperthymestic syndrome)的人进行研究,以期在超级记忆如何工作方面取得新的进展,一位是俄亥俄州的男子,一位是加利福尼亚州的妇女。

威兼斯从未意识到自己的记忆力不同于常人,直至他弟弟埃里克告诉他两年前Neurocase杂志上发表的一篇文章。文章中将一位妇女说成是初期A.J。

“我弟弟在加利福尼亚看了看说‘她听起来与你情况相似,为什么我们不在欧文把情况告诉人们呢?’”

在欧文,研究人员象对待另外两位hyperthymestic者一样,对威兼斯进行了测试,给出一系列的日期,让他说出相应的事件,并反过来做了询问。

“他们回答的速度是我对这事感到惊奇的部分原因,因为他们并没有或过多进行故意的考虑,答案几乎是脱口而出。”在大学的“学习与记忆研究中心”工作的拉里*柯黑尔(Larry cahill)说道,“记住,这都是一些事先他们并不知道我们要问的问题是。”

现在,研究人员正使用一种核磁共振成像技术,建立hyperthymestic者大脑的三维图像。他们想搞清楚,与平常的大脑相比,他们的大脑组织的大小是否有所不同。

柯黑尔(Cahill)和他的同事们正在对结果进行审理,但hyperthymestic的额叶前部皮层总体上似乎大一些。额叶前部皮层位于大脑的前部,人们将其与综合思维联系在一起,与学习或记忆无关。

柯黑尔希望具有这一超常能力的人主动站出来。

他说:“我希望我们能尽可能多的识别这些人,因为我们识别的越多,研究的越多,我们真正摸索出有关大脑和记忆的新的基本性东西的可能性就会越大,离开他们,我们永远都搞不明白。

翻看一本家庭相册时,威兼斯回忆起的事情多得令人吃惊,这是几十年前的事。

当问及一张拍摄于南达科塔州西南部的黑白照片时,他准确地记着,照片拍摄于:1964年6月28日,星期二。同一天,他们到拉希魔山旅行。他还记着当天的气温达到100度,他们为了保持“甜姐儿”牌(Funy Face)饮料的凉爽而将其放入汽车后备箱内的保温桶中。

柯黑尔说,威兼斯和其他两位在标准记忆测试中的表现并不出色,他们并不是学识渊博的人,超常的思想能力常伴有其它方面的不足。

在这个信息瞬息万变的时代,超常记忆又有什么用呢?

“我真不知道,对此,我已经思考好年了,”这位1969年威斯康星州拼字比赛的冠军说。

目前,威兼斯说,当他明白对他记忆的研究对于他人可能会有帮助时,他感到心满意足。“那将是最终目标。”

译文:Man's rare ability may unlock secret of memory

Give Brad Williams a date, and he can usually tell you not only what hewas doing but what world events happened that day. He can do this foralmost every day of his life.

Williams is one of only three people in the world identified withthis off-the-charts autobiographical memory, according to researchersat the University of California-Irvine who gave the condition its name:hyperthymestic syndrome, from the Greek words for excessive (hyper) andremembering (thymesis).

Unlike most people whose memories fade with time, much of Williams' life is etched indelibly in his mind.

"It's just there," said Williams, 51, who reports the news for a family of radio stations in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

The California researchers are studying Williams and the two otherswith hyperthymestic syndrome, a man in Ohio and woman in California,hoping to gain new insights into how a superior memory works.

The goal of the study is to find a way to help people with failing memory.

Williams didn't realize how exceptional his memory was until hisbrother Eric told him about an article published two years ago in thejournal Neurocase, describing a woman referred to by the initials, A.J.

"My brother in California saw this and said, 'She sounds like you. Why don't we talk to the folks at Irvine?'" Williams said.

At Irvine, researchers quizzed Williams, as they have the two otherhyperthymestics, about a series of dates, asking for the correspondingevent, and vice-versa.

"The speed with which they do this ispart of why I find this so amazing because it seems to indicate there'sno -- or not much -- intentional calculation going on. It's boom, boom,boom, there's the answer," said Larry Cahill, a fellow at theuniversity's Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory."Remember, these are questions they had no idea what we're going to askthem."

Now researchers are using an MRI to createthree-dimensional pictures of the hyperthymestic brain. They want tosee whether any brain structures differ in size, compared with theaverage brain.

Cahill and his colleagues are still going overthe results but it appears some structures in the prefrontal cortex aresubstantially larger in hyperthymestics. The prefrontal cortex sits atthe front of the brain and has been associated with complex thinking,not learning or memory.

Cahill said he hoped others with this extraordinary ability will come forward.

"I hope that we can identify as many of these people as possiblebecause the more we identify and the more we study the greater thelikelihood that we are going to really figure out fundamental newthings about brains and memory that we would have never figured outwithout them," Cahill said.

Flipping through a family photo album with him it was astonishing how much Williams recalled, going back decades.

Asked about one black and white picture taken in the Badlands ofSouth Dakota, he remembered exactly when it was taken: Tuesday, July28, 1964, the same day as a trip to Mount Rushmore. He also rememberedthat the temperature reached 100 degrees and that they tried to keepFunny Face drinks cool in a Thermos in the back of the car.

Cahill said Williams and the other hyperthymestics don't do any betterthan average on standard memory tests, nor are they savants, acondition where one extraordinary mental ability is accompanied bydeficits in other areas.

In this age of instant information, what can you do with phenomenal recall?

"I don't really know. I've thought about it for years," said Williams,the 1969 Wisconsin Spelling Bee champion. Williams appeared on"Jeopardy!" but finished second.

For now, Williams said he is content knowing research into his memory might help others. "That would be the ultimate goal."

本文章由随你译专题人工在线翻译网为您提供

看过篇文章的网友还在看:

“矮子爬坡,步步高升”

  歇后语是我国特有的一种语言形式,以其生动、幽默的形象和丰富的文化底蕴体现于人们口头交流以及各种文学作品中。《红楼梦》是一部具有丰富民族文化内涵的中国古典名著,其中运用了大量歇后语,使得作品语言形象生动,给人留下深刻的印象。本文以关联理论为基础,对《红楼梦》两个英译本中的歇后语进行对比分析,探讨汉语歇后语英译的翻译策略。一、关联理论和关联翻译理论Sperber和W ilson联名出版的《关联性:交际与认知》一书从认知角度对话语理解提出了一种新理论———关联理论,将语用学的重点移到了认知理论上,指出语言交际是一个由认知到推理的互明过程,即说话人通过明示行为向听话人展示自己的信息意图和交际意图,听话人根据对方的行为所提供的信息结合语境理解说话人的意图。书中提到了两条原则:人类认知倾向与最大关联性相吻合;每一个明示的交际行为都应设想为它本身具有的最佳关联性。其中,最大关联性指的是话语理解时付出尽可能小的努力而获得最大的语境效果。最佳关联性则是指在话语理解时付出有效努力后获得足够的语境效果。关联性是一个相对概念,其强弱取决于推导努力和语境效果。推导努力指在认知过程中所付出的努力。语境效果指的是人们希望花费在理解上所付出的努力能够以某种方式改进他们用于交际的语境假设。在同等条件下,关联性与推导努力成反比,与语境效果成正比。Gutt在《翻译与关联:认知与语境》一书中提出了关联翻译理论。他强调应该从交际能力的角度,而不是从“编码-传达-解码”的角度来解释翻译现象。翻译是一个认知推理的交际过程,也遵循交际的一般原则,即关联原则。首

联系我们 - 快捷支付 - 招聘信息 -  服务条款 - 友情链接 - 网站地图 - TAG 点击这里给我发消息
随你译,中国最大的网上翻译公司,集中了超过5万名各语种专业译者,为您提供高性价比的笔译口译同声传译本地化翻译服务.
京ICP备09008907号 Powered by suiniyi.com Copyright 2010