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黑猩猩显示出优于人类的超级记忆

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甚至在黑猩猩周围花少许时间,你就开始认识到牠们是多么的聪明。但是,牠们在脑力上胜过人类吗?大多数人对此会报以冷笑。



但是研究表明,年轻的黑猩猩在记忆测试上优于成年人类。这是一种利用计算机屏幕上的数码类似集中的游戏。

“我们很惊讶地发现这一点,”京都大学灵长类动物研究所的哲郎松泽说。“但它是一个非常具体、简单的事实。年轻的黑猩猩在记忆任务中优于成年人类。”

松泽博士和一位同事,萨纳井上,首先训练黑猩猩按循序认识 1 到 9 数字。哎,发现第一个受训练的黑猩猩,一个成年雌性,就具有和成年人类等同的记忆能力。

当研究人员去看小于 6 岁的黑猩猩是否有差别时,动物们有一个触摸屏,那里分散的数字出现长达近三分之二秒钟,然后被白色方块罩上。以最短大约五分之一秒钟的暴露时间,黑猩猩有 80 % 的准确率,相比之下成年人类为 40 % 。在当代生物学 中描述了这个发现。

松泽博士说,这种能力使他想起称之为遗觉影像的现象,在其中,一个人记忆一个复杂场景的详情。这种所谓的摄影记忆,只存在在极少数往往与孤独症有关的儿童中。

松泽博士推测,也许早在共同演化的某个时期,人类和黑猩猩都具有这种能力。但是人类因为获得了另外一些东西,通过复杂语言的沟通,而失去了它。

按照艾的演示,成年黑猩猩也失去了这种能力。松泽博士提出,随着黑猩猩成长,牠们的记忆能力也以另外的方式被占据。

译文:Chimps Exhibit Superior Memory, Outshining Humans

Spend even a little time around chimpanzees, and you begin to realizehow intelligent they are. But can they outshine humans in brain power?Most humans would scoff at that.

But researchers have shown that young chimps outperform adult humans in a test, a Concentration-like game using numerals on a computer screen.

“We were very surprised to find this,” Tetsuro Matsuzawa of the PrimateResearch Institute at Kyoto University said. “But it’s a very concrete,simple fact. Young chimps are superior to human adults in a memorytask.”

Dr. Matsuzawa and a colleague, Sana Inoue, firsttrained chimps to recognize the numerals 1 through 9 in sequence. Ai,the first chimp trained, an adult female was found with a memorycapability equal to that of adult humans.

When the researcherswent to see if there was a difference with chimps younger than 6, theanimals had a touch screen where scattered numerals appeared for up totwo-thirds of a second and were then masked by white squares. With theshortest exposure time, about a fifth of a second, the chimps had an 80percent accuracy rate, compared with adult humans’ 40 percent. The are described in Current Biology.

Dr. Matsuzawa said the ability reminded him of the phenomenon calledeidetic imagery, in which a person memorizes details of a complex sceneat a glance. This so-called photographic memory is present in a verysmall number of children, and is often associated with .

Dr. Matsuzawa speculated that perhaps somewhere back in commonevolution, humans and chimps had this ability. But humans lost itbecause they gained something else, communicating through a complexlanguage.

As Ai demonstrates, adult chimps lose the ability,too. Dr. Matsuzawa suggested that as the chimps age, their memorycapability is otherwise occupied.


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