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在给混合动力汽车提供动力的竞赛中的黑马

时间:2011-01-11 21:41 点击:
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低档绿色机车:装备着终极电容器的丰田超级HV-R小汽车,是贏得在日本十胜国际赛车场举行的24小時耐久赛冠军的唯一的混合动力汽车。

在给汽车加上一脚油门,将丰田普锐斯或其它环境友好的汽车甩在烟尘中以后,许多开车的人会得意地咯咯作笑。但是,丰田公司和它的关爱地球的同仁们可能会笑到最后,因为他们正致力于推动有一天能让混合动力汽车处于支配地位的终级电容技术的新进展。

以油电混合为动力的汽车目前取得的最大胜利,在几周前才刚刚到来,一辆装备着终级电容器的丰田超级HV-R小汽车成为贏得在日本十胜国际赛车场举行的24小時耐久赛冠军的唯一的混合动力汽车。这辆混合动力的超级赛车完成了5.1公里(大概3!!英里)616圈的赛程——比第二名的非混合动力的尼桑淑女Z多出了19圈。”赢得比赛的丰田汽车可以更快地传递能量、更快地加速以及更有效地利用制动发电技术,”凯文.麦克说,他是研究和咨询公司战略分析部门的分析家和最近一项研究的发起人,该研究诣在探究终极电容器在混合动力汽车中补助、甚至可能替代电池的潜力。“大块头的汽车蓄电池组的时日不多了。”他补充到。

原因是,他表示:电容器技术将能量存储在距离很近的一对导体之间的电场中。终极电容,也称为超级电容,是一种电气化学电容器,比普通电容器有着更高的能量密度,更适用于混合动力汽车。

终极电容器通过自然分开的正负电荷存储电能。电池用有毒化学物质储存能量,而且它们的效力是随着时间递减的。另外,在电池中循环利用重金属是一项困难的任务。而电容器却是由非常小的高品质的碳纳管制成的,麦克说。

终极电容器的主要优势在于它们有效捕获制动系统再生的电能,以及将这部分电能传递给汽车作为加速的动力的能力。终极电容器不仅充电比电池迅速,放电也更快,麦克说。

它们应用方面的缺点在于这项技术不能储存象电池一样多的电能。但十胜比赛证明了与较小的电池配合使用,终极电容器能被广泛应用于为混合动力车提供动力。“因为不需要化学药品,电容器能制得更加轻巧,因而使混合动力汽车制造商能够进一步推动燃料经济,并进一步降低成本。”麦克说:“低重量将使得混合动力传动系统对微型汽车来说更有效,这一点自从1997年以来,已在现代和马自达概念车上体现出来了。”

然而,许多汽车企业对锂离子电池的发展要比终极电容器的进展更有兴趣。本月初通用汽车公司和A123系统公司签署了开发汽车用磷酸盐锂离子电池的协议。A123系统公司的电池目前主要用于无线直动力工具上。象丰田普锐斯和福特翼虎这样的混合动力车使用的镍金属氢化物电池比锂离子电池系统要大,后者能把更多的电能封存在一个更小的空间内。A123系统公司的第一款汽车电池有望在10月份为通用汽车公司准备好,并且该公司计划于2010年末生产出下一代以电为动力的汽车。

过去,电容器对于电池来说没有竞争力,因为它们不能提供较高的能量密度,亚利桑那州大学电子和计算机工程教授奥杰尔德.保卢辛斯基说。保卢辛斯基强调判断一种能量源多么有效方面,能量密度是比存储能力更好的方法。“你能得到非常高的电荷存储能力,但电压可能非常低。”他解释说。

 

译文:The Dark Horse in the Race to Power Hybrid Cars

MEAN GREEN MACHINE: An ultracapacitor-equipped Toyota Supra HV-R coupe was the only hybrid to win the 24-hour endurance race held at Japan's Tokachi International Speedway.

Many motorists chuckle smugly after giving their cars a little extra gas to leave a Toyota Prius or some other in the dust. But Toyota and its Earth-loving ilk may yet have the last laugh as they cultivate encouraging new advances in ultracapacitor technology that promise to one day .

The greatest victory so far for the cars, fueled by a combo of electricity and gas, came just weeks ago when an ultracapacitor-equipped Toyota Supra HV-R coupe became the first hybrid to win the 24-hour endurance car race held at Japan's Tokachi International Speedway. The hybrid Supra finished 616 laps of the 5.1-kilometer (roughly threemile) course—19 more laps than the second-place nonhybrid Nissan Fairlady Z. "The Toyota that won was able to deliver energy more quickly, accelerate faster, and use braking generation more efficiently," says Kevin Mak, an analyst with research and consulting firm Strategy Analytics and author of a recent study that explores the potential for ultracapacitors to complement and possibly even replace batteries in hybrid vehicles. "The days of the large hybrid vehicle battery pack may be numbered," he adds.

The reason, he says: capacitor technology that stores energy in the electric field between a pair of closely spaced conductors. An ultracapacitor, also called a supercapacitor, is an electrochemical capacitor with a higher energy density than normal capacitors, which potentially makes them a better fit for hybrid vehicles.

Ultracapacitors store electricity by physically separating positive and negative charges. Batteries store energy using toxic chemicals and their effectiveness fades over time. In addition, recycling the heavy metals in batteries is a difficult task. Capacitors, on the other hand, are constructed of much smaller fine carbon , Mak says.

A major advantage of ultracapacitors is their ability to efficiently capture electricity from regenerative braking systems and provide that electricity to power a car's acceleration. Ultracapacitors not only charge more quickly than batteries, they also release energy more quickly, Mak says.

A drawback to their use is the technology's inability to store as much energy as a battery. But the Tokachi race proved that ultracapacitors could be more widely used in conjunction with smaller batteries to power hybrid cars. "Without the need for chemicals, capacitors can be lighter, thereby enabling the hybrid car maker to improve fuel economy further and reduce costs," Mak says. "The low weight would then make hybrid power trains more readily available to compact car segments as [has been] seen on Honda and Mazda concept cars since 1997."

Most car companies, however, are more interested in advances in lithium ion batteries than in ultracapacitor . Earlier this month signed an agreement with A123Systems to develop its nanophosphate lithium ion battery technology for automobiles. A123Systems' batteries today are used primarily in cordless power tools. Hybrids such as the Toyota Prius and Ford Escape use nickel-metal hydride batteries that are larger than lithium ion systems, the latter of which can pack more electric power into a smaller space. The first A123 car batteries are expected to be ready for GM to test by October, and the company plans to have its next generation of electrically powered vehicles on the market by the end of 2010.

Capacitors haven't been competitive with batteries in the past, because they have not offered a higher energy density, says Olgierd Palusinski, a University of Arizona professor of electrical and computer engineering. Palusinski argues that energy density is an even better measure than storage capacity of how effective a power source can be. "You could have a very high storage of charge but at a very low voltage," he notes.

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随你译带大家学习一些美容的词汇,希望大家的英文词汇更进一步:
brush 发刷
nail polish 指甲油
handbag 手提包
hatbox 帽盒
cosmetics case 化妆箱
high heels 高跟鞋
gloves 手套
wrist watch 手表
belt 腰带
pendant 项饰
necklace 项链
neck scarf 围巾
earrings 耳环
sun glasses 太阳镜
cigarette holder 烟斗
ring 戒指
bracelet 手链, 手镯
tie 领带
cuff links 袖扣
ascot 宽领带
pocket watch 表袋
hair net 发网
shampoo 洗发水
cream rinse 营养发水
hair spray 发胶
powder puff 粉扑
face powder 面粉
compact 带镜粉盒
astringent 化妆水
perfume 香水
skin milk 乳液
cold cream 油底霜
atomizer 喷雾式香水
clip 夹子
hand mirror 手镜
bobby pin 发夹
false eyelash 假睫毛
lipstick 口红
wig 假发
tie pin 领带夹
tissue 面纸
purse 手提包
brooch 胸针
shawl 披肩
neckerchief 领巾

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