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化学物质趣谈

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物质有物理性质和化学性质两种属性。(原文遗漏There are two types of properties: physical properties and chemical properties.)一方面科学家可以利用物理性质对物质加以区分;另一方面,利用化学性质可以使一种物质与另外一种或几种物质结合并生成新物质。在两种或多种物质以化学方法结合或分裂时,就会发生化学变化。元素由同种原子组成,化合物由数种结合在一起的原子形成,分子则是多种元素的自然结合体。分子量取决于分子中的原子种类与数量。混合物由几种单质或化合物混合而成,这种混合是物理意义上的混合,而不是化学意义上的结合。混合物有三种存在形式,在此我们只讨论其中的两种。一种是溶液,指由两种物质在分子程度上完全混合而形成的均一混合物。大多数溶液都是完全透明的。另一种混合物被称为胶体或胶体分散体系。当混合物中含有悬浮态微团或颗粒时称为胶体。多数胶体在强光照射下呈乳浊状。这种现象叫作丁达尔效应。基本上所有化学物质都按其化合物被命名。主要有三种方式用于化学物质命名。一种是分子式,可以给出分子中的各种原子的数目。但这种方式没有体现出每个分子中不同原子间的具体排列方式。一种是结构式,给出了分子中原子的排列方式,这是包含信息最多的一种化学式。第三种是经验式,仅仅给出了分子中各原子间最简比。一个经验式通常可以表示多种物质,这些物质含有同类原子且各种原子间数量比相同。

将原子结合在一起的吸引力称为化学键。化学键有几种不同的形式。一种是共价键,是由原子间共享价电子形成。一种是共价单键,也可称为单键,由两个原子共享一对价电子形成。另一种是双键,由两个原子共享二对价电子形成。还有一种是三键,由两个原子共享三对价电子形成。化学键包括极性键、非极性键及偶极性键。当一个原子对共享电子的电吸引强于其它原子时,形成极性共价键。当两个原子对共享电子的引力相同时形成非极性共价键。当分子具有带相反电荷的两端或“两极”时形成偶极分子。偶极分子也叫极性分子。另外还有一种离子键,在这种化学键中带正电的离子与带负电的离子通过电引力结合在一起。最后还要谈一谈离子晶体,离子晶体中的离子相互吸引并按几何结构排列。离子晶体的单位化学式就是其中不同离子间的最简比。

将不同物质“粘结”在一起的力称为分子间力。分子间力可分为三类:偶极力,色散力及氢键。偶极力是存在于极性分子间的一种分子间力。色散力则在极性分子及非极性分子间都存在。氢键是一种强分子间力,通常是由特定的原子(如氧、氮或氟等)以共价氢键结合时形成的。具有三维空间排列结构的物质称为晶体,其中的重复单元称为晶体单元。不具有重复、有序空间排列结构的物质称为非晶固体。熔化发生时的温度称为熔点,发生沸腾时的温度称为沸点。蒸汽压及沸点取决于分子量及分子间作用力的类型。由于物质的溶解能力、也即一种物质分散到另一种物质中的能力,产生了一种叫做溶液的物质。溶液中被溶解的物质称为溶质,溶剂则是溶质溶解于其中的物质。溶解一般遵守“相似相溶”原理。一种物质不能溶解于某种溶剂时称为不可溶。

译文:Interesting Facts About Chemicals

With physical properties scientist can tell one matter from another.Chemical properties on the other hand when united with anothersubstance or several other substance it forms another substance. Achemical change takes when two or more substances unite or break apartchemically. Elements are composed of one type of atom. Compounds arecomposes of different types of atoms linked together. Molecules areseveral elements that exist naturally. The kind and number of atoms ina molecule determine a molecular mass. A mixture is made of severalelement or compounds that are physically mixed but aren’t chemicallyunited. There are three types of mixtures but I am only going to talkabout two types. One is a solution which is the when molecules of twosubstances are completely mixed and form a uniform mixture. Mostsolutions are completely transparent. The next mixture is called acolloid also known as a colloidal dispersion. This happens when amixture contains tiny clumps or particles that remain suspended withinthe mixture. Most colloid have a milky appearance under bright lights.This is known as the Tyndall effect. Mostly all chemicals are named fortheir compounds. There are mainly three formulas to name chemicals.First there is the molecular formula this gives the number of each typeof atom in a molecule. This form is efficient but don’t show thearrangement of the various atoms within each molecule. Second there isthe structural formula this is the most informative type of chemicalformula and shows the general arrangement of the atoms in a molecule.Last is the empirical formula this is the simplest ratio of atoms in amolecule. One empirical formula can often represent dozens of differentmolecules each having the same type of atoms in the same ratio.

Thereare attractive forces that link atoms together called chemical bonds.There are several types of bonds. One is the covalent bond. This is achemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electronsbetween atoms. Another is the single covalent bond also called a singlebond. This is when two atoms share a single pair of electrons. The nextbond is a double bond this happens when two pairs of electrons share.The last bond I will talk about is the triple bond, which is thesharing of three pairs of electrons. A bond can be polar, nonpolar, ordipolar. A polar covalent bond happens when one electron has a strongerelectrical attraction for the shared electrons than the other atom(s).A nonpolar covalent bond happens when both atoms have the same strengthof electric attraction for the shared electrons. The dipole moleculehappens when a molecule has oppositely charged ends or “poles”. Dipolemolecules are said to be polar. There is also something called an ionicbond, which is a type of chemical bond in which positively charged ionsare electrically attracted to negatively charges ions. Lastly there issomething called an ionic crystal. They are mutually attracted ionsforming geometric arrangements. The simplest ratio of the ions in thecrystal is known as the formula unit.

There are forces that“glue” objects together called intermolecular forces. Intermolecularforces can be divided into three categories: dipolar forces, Londonforces, and hydrogen bonds. Dipolar charges are a type ofintermolecular force that has attraction between polar molecules.London forces are a type of intermolecular force that occurs betweenall molecules whether polar or nonpolar. Last is the hydrogen bond,which is unusually a strong intermolecular force present when hydrogenbonds are covalent to certain atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, orfluorine. Substances arranged in a three-dimensional pattern are knownas a crystalline solid each with a repeating unit called a crystalunit. Substances not arranged in a repeating, orderly pattern areclassified as amorphous solids. The temperature at which melting occursis called the melting point. The point at which boiling occurs iscalled the boiling point. Vapor pressure and boiling point depends onmolecular mass and the type of intermolecular forces. The solubility ofa substance or the ability of one substance to be dissolved in anothersubstance also creates another substance. In a solution the substancethat dissolves is called the solute. The substance into which thesolute dissolves is called the solvent. It is said as a rule “likedissolves like” A substance that will not readily dissolve in a givenis said to be insoluble.

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请国外客户吃饭,不能用我们国人的思维方式,一开口就是“一起吃个饭怎么样?”,这样对有些客户来说可能很不礼貌,我们看国外电影时,只要你留意,就会发现,男主角请女主角吃饭都是问“明天晚上有空吗?”,所以,如果你想请国外客户吃饭,应该先礼貌的问一下“你是否有空 ......”

I wonder ifyouhave time this evening? 我想知道您今晚是否有空?

Would you be interested in dinner with me ? 今晚能请您吃个饭吗?

Which kind of restaurant do you prefer, Chinese or Western?  您喜欢去中餐厅还是西餐厅呢?

I’ll pick you up at 7:00 pm, if it’s ok with you. 如果合适的话,我晚上7点去接您。

美式地道用餐口语

我们来谈谈一些在餐厅内会用到的句子,以及一些跟吃饭有关的单字片语。配合美国的食物介绍一二集来看,相信从此以后到美国餐厅用餐不再是件难事。

1. Do you like to go out eating? 想不想出去吃呢?

有次我问老美出去吃东西怎么说,他回答说一般出去吃饭,他们只说go to eat ,go out eating 或是eat out 而不会说go to dinner,go for lunch,也就是不需特地说中餐或是晚餐。所以后来老美问我刚去哪了,我应该要说的I just went out eating,而不会说I just went to dinner。

如果要强调是去吃午餐或晚餐的话,一般就直接说lunch 或是dinner。例如人家问你,“Where did you go?” 你就可答说“lunch。”

2.There is a Deli over there,do you like it? 那里有一家Deli(餐厅),你喜不喜欢呢?

美国的餐厅可分很多种,Restaurant 是一般的通称,另外常用到的有Deli :供应三明治,沙拉这种现成的,不需再经过烹调的餐厅,例如SUBWAY 就可以算是Deli。另外还有Grill 也随

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