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太阳底下要采取的防晒措施

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随着白天变长,天气越来越热,生活在南路易斯安娜州的居民应注意避免晒伤。晒伤源自于暴露于太阳或太阳等值暴露面时间过长。

差不多每个人都曾被晒伤过或将来被晒伤。任何去海边,钓鱼,在院子里工作或仅仅在大太阳时户外活动的人都可能被晒伤。不恰当的使用晒黑床也是导致晒伤的原因之一。尽管少有致命,日晒可以造成伤残且带来相当的不舒适。

 

从字面意思理解,晒伤就是皮肤上的灼伤,是来源于紫外线辐射的灼伤。灼伤的结果就是皮肤发红,太阳下暴露后30分钟内灼伤就开始出现。

长波紫外线和短波紫外线指的是不同波长的光谱。后者对皮肤损伤更严重,尤其是可以导致皮肤癌。这两种紫外线都是光老化——皮肤和皱纹提前老化——和晒伤的罪魁祸首。晒黑床两种射线都产生。

轻度和无并发症的晒伤通常导致轻微的皮肤发红和受刺激。起初,你的皮肤在暴露后2到6小时开始变红,感觉到刺激。12到24小时后达到高峰。

其他常见症状包括打寒战,发热,恶心或者呕吐,类流感症状以及皮肤起泡爆皮。

出现包括严重疼痛,严重起泡爆皮,头痛,精神错乱,恶心或呕吐以及眩晕的状况时你就应该去挂医院急症科了。

家庭治疗措施对轻度晒伤有一定作用。在晒伤部位放置冰布,进行常用的淋浴或洗澡降温,在晒伤位置涂抹含有芦荟的舒缓乳液。

晒伤可以导致轻度发热和带来头痛。可以躺在一个凉爽安静的房间里缓解头痛,多喝水因为头疼可能是脱水所致。

医学治疗

如果你仅为轻度灼伤且无生命威胁性,医生可能仅仅建议大量饮水,服用阿司匹林或其他非甾体抗炎药。其他典型的治疗措施比如冷敷,Burow溶液浸泡,或者开一些高质量的保湿霜或露。

如果你的伤情足以严重,医生可能开一些类固醇疗法-可的松类药物供使用几天。超级强效类固醇药膏通常好用。针对特定伤情可能开一些效果更强的止疼药。

轻度无并发症的晒伤导致不适单不会持续很久。在4到7天内你将见好。

你会看到蜕皮现象。这通常与严重瘙痒有关,尤其是在夜间,出汗后或淋浴后。

 

其他皮肤问题,比如单纯疱疹,红斑狼疮和卟啉症——种对敏感性阳光的遗传疾病——可能会恶化。

 

长期暴露于太阳底下可能导致皮肤早衰,严重起皱纹,色素性皮肤病变的发展,或长痣,以及各种恶性皮肤肿瘤。眼睛过早形成白内障。

 

对于将要在太阳底下活动的人应该穿防护性服装,戴宽边帽,太阳镜以及涂抹SPF值为45到55的防晒霜。

 

约翰J博士琼斯是一名经专业委员会认证的专门从事皮肤疾病,皮肤过敏和皮肤癌手术的皮肤科医生,他在蒂博多和Raceland都设有办事处。他还担任唯一新奥尔良的路易斯安那州立大学医学中心皮肤科副教授。

译文:Take precautions when in the sun

As longer days and warmer weather appear, south Louisiana residents should be reminded to avoid getting sunburned. Sunburn results from too much sun or sun-equivalent exposure.

Almost everyone has been sunburned or will become sunburned at some time. Anyone who visits a beach, goes fishing, works in the yard or simply is out in the sun can get sunburn. Improper tanning-bed use also is a source of sunburn. Although seldom fatal, sunburn can be disabling and cause quite a bit of discomfort.

Sunburn is literally a burn on your skin. It is a burn from ultraviolet radiation. The consequence of this burn is inflammation of the skin. Injury can start within 30 minutes of exposure.

UVA and UVB refer to different wavelengths in the light spectrum. UVB is more damaging to the skin especially for skin cancer. Both UVA and UVB are responsible for photo-aging — premature aging of the skin and wrinkles — and sunburn. Tanning beds produce both UVA and UVB rays.

Mild and uncomplicated cases of sunburn usually result in minor skin redness and irritation. Initially, your skin turns red about two to six hours after exposure and feels irritated. The peak effects are noted at 12 to 24 hours.

Other common symptoms include chills, fever, nausea or vomiting, flu-like symptoms and blistering.

Conditions that should motivate you to go to a hospital’s emergency department include severe pain, severe blistering, headache, confusion, nausea or vomiting, and fainting.

Home-treatment measures may provide some relief from a mild sunburn. Use cool cloths on sun-burned areas. Take frequent cool showers or baths. Apply soothing lotions that contain aloe vera to sun-burned areas.

A sunburn can cause a mild fever and a headache. Lie down in a cool, quiet room to relieve the headache. A headache may be caused by dehydration, so drinking fluids may help.

Medical Treatment

If your case is mild and not life-threatening, the doctor may simply suggest plenty of fluids, aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Additional topical measures such as cool compresses, Burow solution soaks, or high-quality moisturizing creams or lotions may be prescribed.

If your case is severe enough, systemic steroid therapy — cortisone-like medications — may be prescribed for several days. Super-potent steroid creams often benefit. Stronger pain-relieving medication may be prescribed in certain cases.

Minor and uncomplicated cases of sunburn cause discomfort and no long-lasting effects.

You can expect to feel better in four to seven days.

You may see skin loss or peeling. This is often associated with severe itching, especially at night, after sweating or after showering.

Other skin problems, such as herpes simplex, lupus and porphyria — an inherited disorder of sensitivity to sunlight — may worsen.

Chronic sun exposure may lead to premature aging, severe wrinkling, pigmented skin-lesion development, or moles, and various malignant skin tumors. Premature cataract formation in the eye also can result.

Those who plan to spend some time in the sun should wear protective clothing, wide brim hats, sunglasses and sunscreen with an SPF of 45 to 55 for sun protection.

Dr. John J. Jones Jr. is a board-certified dermatologist specializing in diseases of the skin, allergies and skin-cancer surgery, with offices in Thibodaux and Raceland. He also serves as associate professor of dermatologic surgery at Louisiana State University Medical Center in New Orleans.

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二十二、Since + S +过去式,S +现在完成式。
  例句:Since he went to senior high school,he has worked very hard.

  自从他上高中,他一直很用功。

  二十三、It pays to + V ~~~(……是值得的。)

  例句:It pays to help others.

  帮助别人是值得的。

  二十四、be based on(以……为基础)

  例句:The progress of thee society is based on harmony.

  社会的进步是以和谐为基础的。

  二十五、Spare no effort to + V(不遗余力的)

  We should spare no effort to beautify our environment.

  我们应该不遗余力的美化我们的环境。

  二十六、bring home to +人+事(让……明白……事)

  例句:We should bring home to people the value of working hard.

  我们应该让人们明白努力的价值。

  二十七、be closely related to ~~(与……息息相关)

  例句:Taking exercise is closely related t o health.

  做运动与健康息息相关。

  二十八、Get into the habit of + Ving = make it a rule to + V(养成……的习惯)

  We should get into the habit of keeping good hours.

  我们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。
 


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