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用清晨合唱曲音乐碟教会遗弃的幼鸟唱歌

时间:2011-01-11 02:23 点击:
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给失去父母的幼鸟播放清晨鸟类合唱曲的磁带,以期这些声音能教会他们合谐歌唱。

让(幼鸟)听清晨鸟类合唱曲,包括他们中类的叫唤,被认为有助于教会小鸟长大时会要用到的呼唤与记号。

对很多鸟类来说,鸣叫是一种必不可少的技能,这种技能在宣告领地时或在吸引配偶时会起到非常重要,学会了才能知道怎么在这些方面好好表现。对有些来说,则可能意味着是生存下来还是过早夭折。

一项研究的结论是,笼养的鸟很可能能在听到自己同类的叫声中获益,在此项研究后,RSPAC(皇家动物保护协会)开发了幼鸟音乐课程。

“鸟类从父母那儿学会歌唱,因此笼养可能意味着他们不知道怎么正确的鸣叫,”RSPCA野生专家蒂姆。汤姆斯说。

“歌唱(鸣叫)能力对许多鸟类的雄鸟来说特别重要,因为这对他们的形成来说很关键,还有就是保卫自己的领地,找配偶等方面。很多种类的雌鸟都是根据雄鸟唱歌唱得怎么样来选伴侣的。”

“研究发现,大部分的鸟类听这些鸟类鸣叫曲有好处-他们听歌,而这些歌帮助他们成为会唱歌的好鸟,而回过头来,这又可以帮助他们在被放生时(在大自然中)能够更好地生存”。

现在在所有的RSPCA的野生营救中心,鸟类鸣叫音乐碟每天放两次。在这些野生营救中心里,刚长毛的小鸟受到细心照料,因为将来是要把他们放回野生状态环境的。放生的黑鸟将用无线电进行跟踪,来确定(研究)曾经的音乐课程的效果如何。

关于鸟类音乐课程的效果研究得到的结论是,鸣叫的能力是深植到幼鸟的大脑中了,但要掌握这个技能,每只鸟还是应该多听听他们父母和其它大鸟的真正表演。

关键的是,研究者发现,与同类大鸟隔绝的小鸟可能开发出来的是不调和的或者不正常的鸟叫声,这很可能会妨碍他们未来找配偶。发现雌鸟通常比雄鸟唱歌会少一些,但雌鸟却表现出显著的偏爱,她们喜欢跟唱得最久的或者会唱最难歌的雄鸟交配。

从事这项研究的研究员发现,虽然不是亲鸟的现场录音,这些鸣叫声的录音带,确实帮助了很多幼鸟自己学会了怎么啼叫。

“鸟类的早期生活环境对他们成年时期的性信号质量有重大影响,尤其在歌唱方面。而这些最后又对成功饲养和体质的结果有显然影响。”RSPCA拨款的研究中说。

对这些救护的鸟类播放的是早晨鸟类合唱曲,而不是他们自己同类的单独啼叫的录音,这是因为这些幼鸟自己从这整体的喧闹声可以找到自己同类的叫声。

RSPCA的四个野生营救中心每年4-8月都会收留4500只幼鸟,占他们所照顾的所有动物的近三分之一。平均每只幼鸟在放生前要在中心呆上50天左右。

该机构成员叫到建议说,远在被遗弃之前,地上看到的许多幼鸟仍然还在母亲的饲养中。

托马斯生活说“每年的这个时候,我们都会收到被机构成员带来的数千只幼鸟,他们看到这些鸟儿呆在地上,又不能飞,就以为他们是被遗弃了。但通常,母鸟就在附近,仍然在喂养他们。”

“这时候能做的最好的事就是不要去打扰他们,最多在远处观察。只在你确认他们遇到麻烦的时候,呼叫RSPCA的电话寻求救援。”

译文:Orphaned chicks taught to sing with CD of the dawn chorus

Orphaned baby birds are being played recordings of the dawn chorus in the hopethat the sounds will teach them to sing in tune.

Listening to the dawn chorus, including the calls of their own species, isthought to help to teach young birds the notes and calls they will need whenthey grow up.

Singing is a vital skill for many birds and knowing how to put on a goodperformance can be all important when proclaiming a territory or trying toattract a mate. For some it makes the difference between survival and anearly death.

Music lessons for chicks were introduced by the Royal Society for theProtection of Animals (RSPCA) after a study concluded that captive birdswere likely to benefit from hearing songs by their own species.

“Birds learn to sing from their parents, so being reared in captivity can meanthat they don't know how to sing properly,” said Tim Thomas, an RSPCAwildlife officer.

“The ability to sing is extremely important to the males of most bird speciesbecause it is vital for them to form and then defend their own territory andfind a mate. Female birds in many species choose a partner based on the waythey sing.

“The study found that the majority of birds species benefit from being playedbirdsong - they listen to it and it helps them become good singers, whichwill in turn help them to survive when they are released.”

Birdsong CDs are now being played twice daily at all RSPCA wildlife rescuecentres where fledgelings are being cared for with the intention ofreleasing them back into the wild. Blackbirds that are released will beradio-tracked to determine how effective the music lessons have been.

The study into the effects of birdsong concluded that the ability to sing washardwired into the fledgelings' brains but to master the skill each birdneeds to hear performances by its parents and other adults.

Crucially, the researchers found, young birds that are kept in isolation fromadults of their species are likely to develop discordant or “abnormal songs”that are likely to put off potential mates. Females were found to sing lessfrequently than males but many showed a distinct preference to mate with themales that had the longest or most complex songs.

Researchers who conducted the study found that recordings of songs, althoughno match for live performances by the parent birds, did help most species offledgelings to learn how to sing themselves.

“Environmental conditions during the early life stages of birds can havesignificant effects on the quality of sexual signals in adulthood,especially song, and these ultimately have consequences for breeding successand fitness,” the researchers said in their study, which was funded by theRSPCA.

The dawn chorus is played to the rescued birds rather than single speciesrecordings because the fledgelings are able to pick out the songs of theirown species from the general din.

The RSPCA's four wildlife rescue centres take in about 4,500 fledgelings everyear from April to August, accounting for about a third of all the animalsthey care for. On average, each bird will remain at a centre for 50 daysbefore being released.

Members of the public were advised that, far from having been abandoned, manyfledgelings seen on the ground were still being fed by their mothers.

Mr Thomas said: “At this time of year we get thousands of fledgelings broughtin by members of the public who see them on the ground, not able to fly, andassume they have been abandoned. But very often the mother is near by and isstill feeding them.

“The best thing to do is to leave them alone but watch from a distance andcall the RSPCA only if you're sure they're in trouble.”

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